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|Many Basque farmhouses survived thanks to the smuggling. The land did not make enough money. Sara, Baigorri, Aldudes… these have survived thanks to smuggling. The smuggling has changed a lot. Nowadays, there is a lot of bad things, drugs and money.He would never deal with drugs, although he was offered the chance.(46:10") Goodbye.|
|The Portuguese were earning little money at home. In France, however, they were free and they contracted everyone to do the work. How they left Portugal and how they crossed the frontier.There were some who went over in the belief that there was work to be found and later they were not able to find any. Once the man started working the rest of the family would come over. There have always been people from Portugal to take over, but in 1963 and 1964 there were more than ever.|
|(27:35") After the war the smuggling of livestock and parcels continued.Those people from Sara and Aldudes prepared it along with the Spanish ones and a lot of nylons were taken to Vitoria, Bilbao, Pamplona, Zaragoza and Barcelona. It was brought without any problem from Luxemburg and then it was taken over to Elizondo in lorries and cars. He went to Barcelona himself. It stopped about 1982, after lasting some ten years. A lot of copper was also taken over. It was unloaded in the monk’s monasteries.|
|(19:43") He has never met a spy.They used to hide the Jewish families in the huts of the vineyards. They would hide there for one day. He does not know how they arrived to there. On the other side of the frontier many would walk as far as Elizondo. There they were free.When they were young there were informers about. Many Basques were discovered that way. The Jewish smuggling went on from 1942 to 1944, when the Germans left.|
|Introduction.(0.30”) He learnt about smuggling from a very early age. A lot of mules, old cows, sheep, parcels… were passed over through his barn. In the parcels there were bottles, tobacco, buttones… all the people on his mother’s side were at the smuggling. The mules came from Hazparne and then they were taken over “by strings”. The mule smuggling.He began to work at seventeen. Before that he used to do some smuggling with mares. The ones who did the smuggling were farmers. The lorry parts were taken to Guipúzcoa, Bilbao and Pamplona. A lot of copper was also smuggled. A lot of the smuggling was coming from Switzerland.The Civil guards were easy to buy off. The wardens were not so easy.There were also people, jews and others, who were smuggled over.When the Germans and the Americans were there they used to use some letters made by Basque-speaking coronels authorizing them to work on the pastures. The Germans killed some smugglers, but they, the young people, were not afraid.|
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