Dialects

On this page you will find the dialects of the areas and locations as two types of classification: traditional classification of Louis Bonaparte Loucien Koldo Zuazo current classification. By clicking on each of them, may find the description of the dialect and the towns belonging to it.

Aezkoan

This dialect belongs to the valley of Aezkoa. In the classification of prince Bonaparte the Aezkoan is considered a variant of western Low Navarrese. Nevertheless, it has its own personality and it may be considered as an independent dialect. This is the view of the Basque General Dictionary as well as the view taken in this present work.

Aezkoan has been minutely examined in a recent doctoral study of Iñaki Camino.

The use of the dialect is in decay. There are still quite a few speakers in existence but, beyond some exceptional few cases, there is no natural transmission of the language.

Beyond the general characteristics of spoken Basque, Aezkoan deviates from the standard form in the following ways


Morphology (verbal,nominal)/Phonetics/Lexicon/Syntax

MORPHOLOGY

Verbal

1- As is the case with the Southern High Navarrese, the past form of the verbs lacks -n:

Eguberriak izaten zire puskan pobreago

orduan bizi gine pobre

Pasten ginuze esto... igual orei bezein alegre edo...

ezbaiginue ezaundu guk

horrek bazazki eta kantu pollitak

bida, eta oino eta memoria ona zauke ta kantatze zitue

baia gazte bainitze

However, very sporadically forms in -n may be heard -n:

eta hiltzen ginuen txerria

gauren klasera, pasten ginuzen

2- The nor-nori-nork is made, as in the continental Basque, from the root, -erau- contracted to -au-:

erran dauzunak

erraten beitaeu (< dauegu ) bordak

Para las terceras personas, sin embargo, se usan formas en -ako- (dakot).

3- The -a- form appears in the past tense of the strong verbs (synthetics): nakien, zakien, zabilen... etc, (standard neukan, zebilen... etc.):

horrek bazazki eta kantu pollitak

bida, eta oino eta memoria ona zauke ta kantatze zitue

Pero cf. zego , con - e - como en salacenco:

ta zeo einik, ona, elizatotto bat, einik zeo

4- The aphaeresis of the auxiliary transitive in the present tense is very common: tut, tuzu, etc.

5- The second person of the plural of the present tense of the nor-nork is in -zie (standard -zue), as is also the case with the Northern High Navarrese and parts of the Southern High Navarrese.

6- With verbs that finish in -n (edan, egon, izan etc), the future form is in -en, where the usual pronunciation is -ain:

nik izain nitue nik hamasei urte?

Izein du, pues, hogei urte edo gala

7- Just as is the case in the Northern High Navarrese and the Southern High Navarrese, and distinct to the Roncalese or Salazarese, the habitual form is nitze(n), (standard nintzen):

baia gazte bainitze

8- As in Northern High Navarrese, in this dialect it is also common usage to use the form -rik of the verbal participle, something which is rare in Northern High Navarrese (except in the Baranca):

baia goixtar buelta eginik gandik oines

ta zeo einik, ona, elizatotto bat, einik zeo

hotzak izoztuik elurrean gor egoten zire

However, sporadically forms in -ta (iganta) may be heard, similar to those of the Guipuzcoan and Northern High Navarrese. This -ta remains unchanged after -n (cf. Guip. -da).

9- As well as the above-mentioned traits, which are systemizable, in this dialect many other verbal flections may be heard which are non-standard. The version in the standard form will make clear the equivalence in each case. See the sample:

gauren klasera, pasten ginuzen [ =genituen ]

ezbaiginue [ =genuen ] ezaundu guk

Ferietra ere behin, behin egon niz [ =naiz ] Otsagin

guzioak gala gindailtze [= genbiltzan ]

ta beti gindaude [ =geunden ], pues, aziendekin

NOMINAL

10- The Aezkoan, like the Northern High Navarrese, distinguishes -ak from-ek in the plural form:

ya etxean oreikoek, telebisionea

11-The instrumental is always -s:

Karreteras, karreteras

baia goixtar buelta eginik gandik oines

ardien ileas oihal eiten ze

beti etxetra bildus

12- The normal contraction of the genitive singular is -ain:

eta dientistaingana, haginein atratzera

13-In the numerals, forms are used such as -tan: hirutan hogei, lautan hogei (="hirurogei," laurogei):

Lauretan hogei ta bida.

14- The nondik case in indefinite and in plural is formed in -tarik (contracted to -taik):

Ronkaldik eta guzietaik

baia ardoa eta likore ta hoeteik

15- -arendako is used for -arentzat.

16- The Spanish ending -ón is kept in the loan-words (in the standard form -oi): pantalona, perdigona, kamiona, botona, xabona:

eta kamion gartan itzuli gine guziak

However, in older loan-words, the -io can be found, derived from -oi (montio

montioan ler fan baigine koadrilla

Cf in Northern High Navarrese forms such as arratio `rata´ (<arratoi) and sario `majada´ (saroi).

17- The two forms of adaptation occur (-io and -ione) of the Spanish ending -ión:

ezta familietan galako, galako unioneik nola len

ya etxean oreikoek, telebisionea

Pero cf.:

eta xateko tenorean ere ezta komunikazio

18- The demonstratives show a g- initial, as happens in certain areas of the Northern High Navarrese (k- in the Roncalese and the Salazarese): gau, gori, gor etc. :

kantatzen zituzte gaek

hotzak izoztuik elurrean gor egoten zire

ezta familietan galako, galako unioneik nola len

konserbatzen da gura gala-gala

gori gori segido

eta kamion gartan itzuli gine guziak

orei atratzen dira geendik berant etxetik

baia goixtar buelta eginik gandik oines

gartik bada ezautzen nitue tienda gaek eta gaetan erosten nue zerbeit ekartzeko

ta ugalde bazter gortan

However, forms with Ø- may be heard although this is quite rare, perhaps due to the influence of outside speakers or adjustments made by the speaker:

heben etxean etze bordeik

baia ardoa eta likore ta hoeteik

hor libro hortan eta daon tia horrek

eta hemengo tierran

19- This dialect freely constructs syntagma in the indefinite form in places where it would be impossible in other dialects:

Eguberriak izaten zire puskan pobreago

feria gartan ze behi ta ardi ere bai

atratzen ze ardi ta ahuntz eta behi

20- The first person form ene of the possessive is in common use, taken out of the usual function it has in most of the peninsular dialects:

ta ene izena Segundo Arostegi

Ene tio batek ze harek zazki guziak ene tio batek

ene barrideko emazteki bat franko zarra

ene gaztezutuan ta len ta

21- The intensive pronouns are of the eastern type guhaur, nihaur, etc.

PHONETICS

22- Just as in the Northern High Navarrese and the Salazarese, the automatic palatalization of n is not made after the i vowel:

orduan bizi gine pobre

kantuak eta euskaras Amaberkina hari

ta zeo einik, ona, elizatotto bat, einik zeo

But in the Aezkoan, it is not made either after the i semi-vowel (whereas it is in the Southern High Navarrese and the Salazarese:

bida, eta oino eta memoria ona zauke ta kantatze zitue

baia goixtar buelta eginik gandik oines

23- Neither t nor l have the palate after the i:

kantatzen zituzte gaek

beitigotik ere...

Bai, eiten ze orduan oihal

ardien ileas oihal eiten ze

The palatals are only found in diminutives, expressive words and recent loan-words:

horrek bazazki eta kantu pollitak

ta zeo einik, ona, elizatotto bat, einik zeo

montioan ler fan baigine koadrilla

24- In the declension, -ea (etxea) and -oa (ardoa) the -ia, -ua does not sound:

Eguberriak izaten zire puskan pobreago

hotzak izoztuik elurrean gor egoten zire

ya etxean oreikoek, telebisionea

eta xateko tenorean ere ezta komunikazio

Larrazkenean bai

faten gine estalgunean

ardien ileas oihal eiten ze

baia ardoa eta likore ta hoeteik

Ni akordatzen niz larrazkenekoa...

gero primadakoan ni ez niz egon

Beti izan da herria abratsagoa

25-The vocal harmony (dirua>dirue, ogia>ogie) does not exist:

eta hiltzen ginuen txerria

baia ardoa eta likore ta hoeteik

Beti izan da herria abratsagoa

orduan bizi gine pobre

kantuak eta euskaras Amaberkina hari

26-The ai diphthong many times has evolved into ei:

eta klaro orei duela berrogei urte

Pasten ginuze esto... igual orei bezein alegre edo...

pues beti zerbeit erosten nue gaetan

erraten beitaeu bordak

heben etxean etze bordeik

baia ardoa eta likore ta hoeteik

Eguberrietako Amabirjinein zerak baia utzi zire

eta dientistaingana, haginein atratzera

Izein du, pues, hogei urte edo gala

But not always:

baia ardoa eta likore ta hoeteik

ezbaiginue ezaundu guk

baia gazte bainitze

nik izain nitue nik hamasei urte?

Ronkaldik eta guzietaik

guzioak gala gindailtze

As can be seen in baia "but", bait "because" and bai "yes", the diphthong is usually kept.

27- The loss of a vowel in the interior of a word (syncope) is very frequent, but with less potency than in the Salazarese:

*in some spontaneous words: Libro, atra, abrats, abre... etc:

orei atratzen dira geendik berant etxetik

eta dientistaingana, haginein atratzera

Beti izan da herria abratsagoa

hor libro hortan eta daon tia horrek

*In the declination of the adlative case (-tara, -tera> -tra):

beti etxetra bildus

Ferietra ere behin, behin egon niz Otsagin

edo oihan batra iorri ta egoteko

But unlike the Salazarese, there is no syncope in -turik:

hotzak izoztuik elurrean gor egoten zire

28- There is a tendency to lose the yod between vowels. It would seem to be at its most advanced state in the demonstratives:

baia ardoa eta likore ta hoeteik

gartik bada ezautzen nitue tienda gaek eta gaetan erosten nue zerbeit ekartzeko

29- Just as in the Salazarese and the Southern High Navarrese, the phonology rules of bait + auxiliary are a little different: baigara, baizen, baiginen:

ezbaiginue ezaundu guk

montioan ler fan baigine koadrilla

Pero baitago, como en el estándar:

erraten beitaeu bordak

30-With words such as joan, jarri, jende etc, in this dialect the initial sound is expressed as x (like the Roncalese and the Salazarese, and historically in part of the Southern High Navarrese):

eta xateko tenorean ere ezta komunikazio

However, sometimes the j may be heard, perhaps from outside influences or adaptation of the speaker:

ler jende ta azienda ta

Eguberrietako Amabirjinein zerak baia utzi zire

For birjina cf Amaberkina, which is the more proper local adaptation of an inter-dialect loan-word with j:

kantuak eta euskaras Amaberkina hari

LEXICON

31- Although there are few exclusive words in this dialect, many words that are a characteristic of East Navarra regions may be heard (Southern High Navarra and Basque spoken in the Pyrennes): puskan with comparatives (as in the Salazarese and Southern High Navarrese), baia, ┤but┤, fan ┤to go┤, ior ┤nobody┤ (the Aezkoan shares these three variations with the Salazarese and, curiously enough, with the Basque spoken in the Barranca), yago ┤more┤ as in the Salazarese and Southern High Navarrese, altzin ┤in front┤, as in the Salazarese and Southern High Navarrese, ler ┤a lot┤ (Perhaps exclusive to the Aezkoan), ugalde ┤river┤, common to the whole zone, estalgunean ┤hidden┤, gaztezutu ┤Youth┤, ezaundu ┤to know┤ (as in the Salazarese),
larrazken ┤The autumn┤, as in all the zone

puskan pobreago

baia ardoa eta likore ta hoeteik

eta kanpo fanaskeos

montioan ler fan baigine koadrilla

ler jende ta azienda ta

ta ugalde bazter gortan

faten gine estalgunean

ene gaztezutuan ta len ta

ezbaiginue ezaundu guk

Larrazkenean bai

Ni akordatzen niz larrazkenekoa...

32- Other words are simply from the East region in general (common to the French -Basque dialects): oino, ┤still┤, biziki ┤very┤, bertze ┤another┤, artio ┤until┤, igorri ┤to send┤, barride ┤district┤, ┤neighborhood┤, bortz ┤five┤, berant ┤late┤, emazteki ┤woman´:

bida, eta oino eta memoria ona zauke ta kantatze zitue

edo oihan batra iorri ta egoteko

ene barrideko emazteki bat franko zarra

orei atratzen dira geendik berant etxetik

ene barrideko emazteki bat franko zarra

SYNTAX

33- The verbal interrogative suffix -a is in use.

34- In this dialect the suffix -larik has substituted -nean in all its functions.

35- Comparatives with nola are commonly heard, just like in the Salazarese and the Roncalese:

ezta familietan galako, galako unioneik nola len

36- The object of the verbal nouns in -te/tzegoes or can go in the genitive form:

eta dientistaingana, haginein atratzera .