Dialects

On this page you will find the dialects of the areas and locations as two types of classification: traditional classification of Louis Bonaparte Loucien Koldo Zuazo current classification. By clicking on each of them, may find the description of the dialect and the towns belonging to it.

Low Navarrese

This is the category spoken in Valcarlos. Although administratively this locality belongs to Upper Navarra, geographically and linguistically it is an extension of Lower Navarra.

The Basque dialect is unequivocally Low Navarrese.

Beyond the general characteristics of spoken Basque, the Basque from Valcarlos deviates from the standard form in the following characteristics:

:

Morphology (verbal and nominal)/Phonetics/Lexicon/Syntax

MORPHOLOGY

Verbal

1- In Valcarlos the -a- appears in the past form of the strong verbs (synthetic): nakien, nauken, zakien, zagoen, zabilen... etc, (standard neukan, zebilen... etc.)

2- The contractions in the periphrastic conjugation are less frequent than in the Northern High Navarrese. But they are very present in the behar and nahi + auxiliary:

plantatu behautelaikan

3- In this dialect it is common to hear many other non-standard verbal flexions. The version in standard Basque clarifies in each case the equivalence . See the sample:

subentzione azkarrak diuzte [=dituzte]

gure mendiak yaten dazkigute [=dizkigute] horien kabalek

but cf. also:

ta gaineat errain dizut gauza at

bana horren gainian denak elgar hartiak gira [=gara]

makur ukaiten ziena [=zutena] Luzaideko kabaladunek

4- In verbs ending in -n (edan, egon, izan, etc.) the future form is generally in -en. The common pronunciation is-ain:

ta gaineat errain dizut gauza at

5- In this dialect the form in rik of the verbal participle is in common use, something rare and atypical in the Northern High Navarrese:

enbreatuik edo gudronoztatuik

6- This dialect uses verbal nouns in -iten (emaiten, erraiten), , as do the continental speakers and the Northern High Navarrese speakers:

makur ukaiten ziena Luzaideko kabaladunek

NOMINAL

7- It distinguishes -ak from -ek in plural:

gure mendiak yaten dazkigute horien kabalek

makur ukaiten ziena Luzaideko kabaladunek

8- The normal contraction of the genitive singular is -ain:

guhaunain eta hesten ai giela

9- The sociative is in -ekilan (standard Basque -ekin):

pazientziaikilan

10- The adlative is in -rat:

biziki untsa mendirat heltzeko

ta gaineat errain dizut gauza at

11- The romance-language termination -ón has been adapted to -oin (Northern High Navarrese -on, other dialects -oi):

eztut uste arrazoin haundik bauten hola hola agertzeko

12- The romance suffix -(c)ión has been adapted to -zione (Northern High Navarrese l -zio):

subentzione azkarrak diuzte

guk eztuu nehori esplikazione eman behar

13- The plural dative is formed in -er (standard -ei):

leheno┤re errana dut beste erreportero batzuer

14- The intensive forms of the pronouns are of the type nihau, guhau etc...:

guhaunain eta hesten ai giela

PHONETHICS

15- The -ua group sounds as -ia:

Mendi gain guzia elurrak hartia du

bana horren gainian denak elgar hartiak gira

16- The automatic palatalization after i does not exist:

profitatu ute anitz mendi hori

orai guk hestian min iten du

makur ukaiten ziena Luzaideko kabaladunek

ta gaineat errain dizut gauza at

bana horren gainian denak elgar hartiak gira

pazientziaikilan

17- In the declination, -ea (etxea) sounds as -ia:

orai guk hestian min iten du

orai ez dira artzen al lanian

bana horren gainian denak elgar hartiak gira

Bana jeneralian ya...

18- The vocal harmony (dirua>dirue, ogia>ogie) is inexistent:

Mendi gain guzia elurrak hartia du

gure mendiak yaten dazkigute horien kabalek

ta gaineat errain dizut gauza at

19- Cases can be seen of the loss of the initial vowel in the word (aphaeresis), a characteristic of many of the Navarrese dialects:

kusten al da

20- Cases can be found of the loss of a vowel in the interior of a word (syncope) , although this does not seem to be an active or very extended practice:

orai ez dira artzen [=aritzen] al lanian

21- In words such as joan, jarri, jende etc the initial sound sounds as -y :

elurrak eta yoan artio

gure mendiak yaten dazkigute horien kabalek

The Spanish j can only be heard in the most recent loan-words:

Bana jeneralian ya...

22- The aspirated h would seem to be out of fashion, as the informant does not pronounce it in any case:

eztut uste arrazoin haundik bauten hola hola agertzeko

bana horren gainian denak elgar hartiak gira

LEXICON

23- The lexicon of this dialect is clearly of an eastern influence. Many variants and terms ar characteristic of the continental Basque speakers: anitz ┤a lot┤, hetsi ┤to close┤, xerka ┤in search of┤, guzi ┤all┤, orai ┤now┤, artio ┤until┤, azkar ┤strong┤, biziki ┤very┤, untsa ┤well┤, kabala ┤herd┤, ┤cattle┤, fini izan ┤to end┤, nehor ┤nobody, nothing┤, ukan ┤to have┤, elgar ┤one another┤, bana ┤but┤.

orai guk hestian min iten du

zeren xerka dailtzan

subentzione azkarrak diuzte

biziki untsa mendirat heltzeko

gure mendiak yaten dazkigute horien kabalek

makur ukaiten ziena Luzaideko kabaladunek

leheno┤re errana dut beste erreportero batzuer

Fini da hori

bana horren gainian denak elgar hartiak gira

24- It also contains many loan-words from the French romance: profitatu ┤to take advantage of┤, gudronoztatu ┤to tar┤(<fr. goudron ┤tar┤) arranyatu ┤to fix up┤ (fr.
arranger):

profitatu ute anitz mendi hori

enbreatuik edo gudronoztatuik

Ez, ez; eztugu forma hortan arranyatzen al

SYNTAX

25- In this dialect the suffix -larik(an) has substituted the -nean in all its functions:

plantatu behautelaikan

26- The dependent completive of uste can appear with -n:

eztut uste arrazoin haundik bauten hola hola agertzeko

27- The periphrasis -ten ahal is in use for the potentials, even in negative sentences:

orai ez dira artzen al lanian

kusten al da

Ez, ez; eztugu forma hortan arraiñatzen al

28- The direct object of verbal nouns in -te/tze (ikuste, hartze, etc...) is put in genitive:

guhaunain eta hesten ai giela

gure gauzen defendiatzen

29- The lack of agreement between a nominal syntagma in dative and the verb is frequent:

leheno┤re errana dut beste erreportero batzuer

guk eztuu nehori esplikazione eman behar