On this page you will find the dialects of the areas and locations as two types of classification: traditional classification of Louis Bonaparte Loucien Koldo Zuazo current classification. By clicking on each of them, may find the description of the dialect and the towns belonging to it.
This is the category spoken in Valcarlos. Although administratively this locality belongs to Upper Navarra, geographically and linguistically it is an extension of Lower Navarra.
The Basque dialect is unequivocally Low Navarrese.
Beyond the general characteristics of spoken Basque, the Basque from Valcarlos deviates from the standard form in the following characteristics:
Morphology (verbal and nominal)/Phonetics/Lexicon/Syntax
1- In Valcarlos the -a- appears in the past form of the strong verbs (synthetic): nakien, nauken, zakien, zagoen, zabilen... etc, (standard neukan, zebilen... etc.)
2- The contractions in the periphrastic conjugation are less frequent than in the Northern High Navarrese. But they are very present in the behar and nahi + auxiliary:
3- In this dialect it is common to hear many other non-standard verbal flexions. The version in standard Basque clarifies in each case the equivalence . See the sample:
but cf. also:
4- In verbs ending in -n (edan, egon, izan, etc.) the future form is generally in -en. The common pronunciation is-ain:
5- In this dialect the form in rik of the verbal participle is in common use, something rare and atypical in the Northern High Navarrese:
6- This dialect uses verbal nouns in -iten (emaiten, erraiten), , as do the continental speakers and the Northern High Navarrese speakers:
7- It distinguishes -ak from -ek in plural:
8- The normal contraction of the genitive singular is -ain:
9- The sociative is in -ekilan (standard Basque -ekin):
10- The adlative is in -rat:
11- The romance-language termination -ón has been adapted to -oin (Northern High Navarrese -on, other dialects -oi):
12- The romance suffix -(c)ión has been adapted to -zione (Northern High Navarrese l -zio):
13- The plural dative is formed in -er (standard -ei):
14- The intensive forms of the pronouns are of the type nihau, guhau etc...:
15- The -ua group sounds as -ia:
16- The automatic palatalization after i does not exist:
17- In the declination, -ea (etxea) sounds as -ia:
18- The vocal harmony (dirua>dirue, ogia>ogie) is inexistent:
19- Cases can be seen of the loss of the initial vowel in the word (aphaeresis), a characteristic of many of the Navarrese dialects:
20- Cases can be found of the loss of a vowel in the interior of a word (syncope) , although this does not seem to be an active or very extended practice:
21- In words such as joan, jarri, jende etc the initial sound sounds as -y :
The Spanish j can only be heard in the most recent loan-words:
22- The aspirated h would seem to be out of fashion, as the informant does not pronounce it in any case:
23- The lexicon of this dialect is clearly of an eastern influence. Many variants and terms ar characteristic of the continental Basque speakers: anitz ┤a lot┤, hetsi ┤to close┤, xerka ┤in search of┤, guzi ┤all┤, orai ┤now┤, artio ┤until┤, azkar ┤strong┤, biziki ┤very┤, untsa ┤well┤, kabala ┤herd┤, ┤cattle┤, fini izan ┤to end┤, nehor ┤nobody, nothing┤, ukan ┤to have┤, elgar ┤one another┤, bana ┤but┤.
24- It also contains many loan-words from the French romance: profitatu ┤to take advantage of┤, gudronoztatu ┤to tar┤(<fr. goudron ┤tar┤) arranyatu ┤to fix up┤ (fr.
25- In this dialect the suffix -larik(an) has substituted the -nean in all its functions:
26- The dependent completive of uste can appear with -n:
27- The periphrasis -ten ahal is in use for the potentials, even in negative sentences:
28- The direct object of verbal nouns in -te/tze (ikuste, hartze, etc...) is put in genitive:
29- The lack of agreement between a nominal syntagma in dative and the verb is frequent: