Dialects

On this page you will find the dialects of the areas and locations as two types of classification: traditional classification of Louis Bonaparte Loucien Koldo Zuazo current classification. By clicking on each of them, may find the description of the dialect and the towns belonging to it.

High Navarrese

(Southern H.Navarrese)  (Nothern H. Navarrese)

 

SOUTHERN HIGH NAVARRESE

Historically this has been the most extended Basque dialogue, the most widely spoken and the most characteristic of Navarre. At the time of its widest historical extension it covered an area from the valleys immediately to the north of Pamplona to the most extended historical line of the Basque language in Navarre. That is to say, the line marked by Val de Lana, Valdega, La Solana, Oteiza, Villatuerta, Cirauqui, Mañeru, Puente La Reina, Valdizarbe, Artajona, Pueyo, Valdorba, Lerga, Ujué, Gallipienzo, Sada, Leache, Lumbier, Urraúl, Salazar, Roncal (all these cited towns being historically Basque speaking places). Westwards, Val de Lana and Améscoa, judging from their common place-names, undoubtedly belonged to another dialectical zone, more westerly and probably close to the extinct Basque once spoken in Álava, and the Basque spoken today in the Burunda area. Eastwardly, the valleys belonging to the Pyrennes (Salazar, Aezkoa, Roncal) come under a different dialect, but not the pre-Pyrenean area (Erro, Lintzoain, Arce) which did use this dialect. This was also the variety of Basque to be found in Pamplona.

At present speakers of this variant are to be found in the valleys of Erro and Esteribar (in total less than 500) but, except for some exceptional case, there is no natural transmission of the language now taking place.

Its historical importance cannot be underestimated. In this variety there exists written material which is linguistically very important; for example, what was probably the very first book printed in Basque; The Christian doctrine of Sancho de Elso, (there are no existing copies). El tratado de Oír Misa (The practice of attending mass) (1621) from Juan de Beriain who, as he himself puts it "is written in the form of speaking of Pamplona, the capitol of this kingdom, which is the most commonly spoken and is understood every where". And above all, the enormous pious homily from Joaquín de Lizarraga, who was parish priest in his hometown of Elcano (Egües), which is a key work in order to understand the varieties of Basque within the district of Pamplona and which are now extinct.

There also exists a large amount of written homilies without literary value but which are linguistically important, which come from all over the historical zone of this dialect.

Beyond the general characteristics of spoken Basque, the southern High Navarrese varies from the standard form in the following characteristics:


:

Morphology (verbal,nominal)/Phonetics/Lexicon/Syntax

MORPHOLOGY

Verbal

1- The main characteristic of the dialect, which reappears in some parts of Biscaya, is the lack of -n in the past form of the verbs: nue, ze, zio, etc.. This trait was common to the whole dialect, and even today it can be heard in Esteribar and Erro, but always in line with the forms with -n. In Eugi only -n exists:

zengatik orai erretrasatuenak hoik izain zire

denen artian harpatzen zute zerrie

ta etzaike igo

Len hartaik bizi gine

gazteago ze

But cf. also:

dena eskuz in behartzen

iduri zuen adelanto at haundienetaik zela

joaten ginden etxeko azienden lana

 

2- In the greater part of the zone -a- appears in the past form of the strong verbs (syntetical): nakien, nauken, zakien, zagoen, zabilen... etc, (standard neukan, zebilen... etc.):

banakin ze kostunbre zuten goizez...

errota guziek hertsiik zauden

Ta ahizpe bat Albisun zauken

ta aitte ta ama hil tzaizkion

ta etzaike igo

ta haizea baldin bazabillen

apainduik ya zauken

 

3- The apheresis of the transitive auxiliary is very common in the present tense: tut, tuzu, etc, for ditut, dituzu, etc:

ene familien eztut zautu, zautu tut bai, bertze familietan

 

4- Instead of diet, diezu, zien, zaie, etc. it is very general to find forms in this zone of the type diotet (=diet), zioten (=zien), zaiote (=zaie) that is to say -ote- instead of -e-:

Zenbaiti etzaote [=zaie] iduritiko

iduritzen zaote [=zaie] gerra hori holako festa bat dela

semeei frankotan erraten dakotet [=diet]

 

5-In the northern zone of this dialect (Mezkiritz), forms of the nor-nori-nork are in use of the Low Navarrese kind such as dakot, zakoten, etc, for diot, zioten etc:

semeei frankotan erraten dakotet

eskribitu nindakon baetz

oaiñik eskribitzen ziren neri iortzen giñekonak

Sometimes the forms in -ako- and in -io- would seem to have crossed :

kutxilloai kanibeta deitzen daogu guk euskeraz

 

6- The intransitive potentials en -ke: daike, zaiken etc. (standard daiteke, zitekeen) are characteristics of this dialogue (although they also exist at least in the Ultzama and Basaburua areas):

ta etzaike igo

Han pasatu ginituen izan zaizken kalamidade handien-handienak

 

7- For the past of the Nor-Nori (standard zitzaion etc.), the root is -KI- instead of -TZA-: zekion/zakion instead of zitzaion:

ta aitte ta ama hil tzaizkion

 

8- The second person of the plural of the present tense of the nor-nork is in -zie (standard: -zue) as in the Ultzama and part of the Southern High Navarrese:

Eztakizie! Hobe duzie

etzaizie iruditzen

 

9- The form nitzen, without -n- (standard: nintzen) is a characteristic of all the Basque-speaking areas of Navarre (standard nintzen):

ni haurre nitzelaik

Zazpi urtez edo eztakit zenbat urtez egon nitzen ni soldado!

ni bigarren kaderatik operatu nitzelaik

ordu betian iatzarri nitzen

 

10- The future form of verbs finishing in -n (edan, egon, izan etc), is usually in -en. The pronunciation is habitually -ain:

zer errain dizut

eztakit noiz artio izain den

zengatik orai erretrasatuenak hoik izain zire

However, historically there have been attestations of futures in this dialect en -nko (janko, joanko), for example for Puente la Reina.

11- The participles in -tu (galdetu, barkatu, etc) hacen el futuro en -tiko, make the future in -tiko, as in Aezkoan: galdetiko, barkatiko, and when linking to behar: galdeti ihar dut (=galdetu behar dut):

ze pagati behar zuten

Orai, zer pasatiko den

zeatik auto aundiz pasatiko da

eta modifikatiko da

Zenbaiti etzaote iduritiko

Pero cf. en Usetxi:

aitu behar zen ordu aundiz

 

12- In this dialect the form in -rik of the verbal participle is in common use, something very rare and unusual in the Northern High Navarrese (except in the Barranca, where it is normal):

errota guziek hertsiik zauden

Prezinteturik errotak

kasik adjudiketuik Baztandei Erregerena.

nola nindeon operatuik

hilabetero ginduen konpromisua inik

apainduik ya zauken

 

13- This dialect does not recognize the verbal nouns in -iten (emaiten, arraiten) which are characteristic of the Northern High Navarrese and the French-Basque dialects:

Orai guk eztugu ja ere erraten al gauze horren gañean

haiziak ematen zuen

ezpadirete sorik gaizki eramaten klinikara edo hola

 

14- The contractions in the pherisfratic conjugation are much less frequent than in the Northern High Navarrese. But they do exist in the behar and nahi + auxiliary verb:

trenean juan behaut lenbailen tierra hontatik

karretera in behautela hemendik Frantziera

Larogei, lautan hogei, nahuzun klasian.

 

15- As well as those cited above, which are systemazied many other non-standard verbal flections can be heard. The version in standard clarifies in each case the equivalence. See the samples:

eta bahikorleat kartzen zuzten [=zituzten] Eugire

berriz denuntziek pagatzen zuzten, azienden yabeak

iten zuzten tripotak

hemen gu ixil-ixilik ginauden [=geunden]

Han pasatu ginituen izan zaizken kalamidade handien-handienak

eta astia ginduelaik, [=genuen] pues ala! kuxetara

joaten ginden [=ginen] etxeko azienden lana

nola nindeon [=nengoen] operatuik

eskribitu nindakon [=nion] baetz

 

16- A recent morphological innovation, but a characteristic of many Basque dialects, is the analogical refection of the relative forms of flexions which finish in -t. The old form is -dan, -dala (dudan, dudala, zaidala, etc.), but the are now generally made duten, dutela, zaitela, etc., remade over dut, zait, etc.:

Ta nik zautu dutena hor, iauen-iauena da

Erran dutena aixtian

erran dizutan bezala

However, the old forms may still be heard, even from the same speaker that will also use the other form:

Ez ez, erran dizuden bezala aixtian

Cf. previous example.

17- The confusion between the verbal paradigms Nor-nork and nor-nori-nork is total (in favor of the second):

biziik ortzi behar digute [=ehortzi behar gaituzte]

Klaro, hemezortzi urtetan eman zieten [=eraman ninduten]

gerra akaatute ere eztakit zenbat urtez iruki zieten han [=eduki ninduten]

ezpadirete sorik gaizki eramaten klinikara edo hola

ta haiek kubritzea gui eaman tziguten

ta nei Donostie destinetu ziaten

 

 

NOMINAL

18- In all this zone, unlike the Northern High Navarrese, the -ak is distinguished from the -ek in plural:

eta azienda sartzen zelaik, denuntzietzen zuten goardek

However, confusing cases are very frequent, in part due to linguistic erosion and in part due to the influence of the Northern High Navarrese:

berriz denuntziek pagatzen zuzten azienden yabeak

baztandarrak aprobetxatzen zuten Erdizaga

 

19- The instrumental is -s (standard -z):

pues iiteas moztu iten zen

hiru hillebetes

Pero es frecuente la vacilación con -z:

dena eskuz in behartzen

Zazpi urtez edo eztakit zenbat urtez egon nitzen ni soldado!

kutxilloai kanibeta deitzen daogu guk euskeraz

Zorriz beteik

 

20- The normal contraction of the genitive singular is -ain:

Diputazioaindako

Erregenekoaikin, eta Baztangoaikin

 

21- With numbers it is very common to find the forms with -tan: hirutan hogei, lautan hogei (=hirurogei, laurogei), although the latter is also heard (from reasons of prestige of the standard and the guipuzcoan); the oriental forms bortz and hameka are also used:

Larogei, lautan hogei, nahuzun klasian.

Lauretan hogei ta hameka

Borz pezta egunean

 

22- The nondik case in the indefinite and in plural is formed by -tarik, just like in the French-Basque dialects:

Hemen, pues, garie, olua, hoetaik

iduri zuen adelanto at haundienetaik zela

orai ya, ezta yausik hoetaik ikusten

hemen ez baitziren ja haetaik

Len hartaik bizi gine

gazteenetaik abiatu zarreneraino

ta trabiesa bakarra ehun kilotaik goiti

 

23- It is common to find -arendako for -arentzat.

Diputazioaindako

oain itten den gauzendako

 

24-In words such as artzain, arrain, haurtzain, etc. in all the dialect the forms in -ai predominate (as they do in Northern High Navarrese): artzai, arrai, haurtzai etc:

25- It is almost generalized to keep the final Spanish -on in the loan-words (standard -oi): pantalona, perdigona, kamiona, jipona, botona, xabona.

ta montonka uzten zen

montondu ta han utzi

However, in the older loan-words, or even in some patrimonial word such as saroi ┤sheepfold┤, the Southern High Navarrese shows its own characteristic result: -io. Compare topography words such as the Pamplona Sario (<saroi). There are no examples in the corpus. .

26- In one area of the dialect (Egüés), the demonstratives show a g- initial, just as in the Salazarese or the Aezkoan (Roncalese k-): gau, gori, gor, etc. However, in the towns where it is still spoken today the forms are the standard hau, hori etc...:

orai ya, ezta yausik hoetaik ikusten

afera hau de

iduritzen zaote gerra hori holako festa bat dela

Ba denbora haetan

 

 

PHONETICS

27- The automatic palatalization is voiced with less force than in the Northern High Navarrese. In the historical zone of the dialect it is unknown in Elcano, Puente La Reina and Arce. On the other hand, it is very strong in Olza, Oláibar, Goñi, Juslapeña and Iza.

Within the present boundary of the dialect (Esteribar and Erro) -n- is palatalized after the i semi-vowel: ezpaña, gaña, etc. but not after the i vowel: irine, mutila etc.:

pantano in antzinean

Han pasatu ginituen izan zaizken kalamidade handien-handienak

hilabetero ginduen konpromisua inik

oaiñik eskribitzen ziren neri iortzen giñekonak

But after a semi-vowel:

berriz azaroko kosetxa eraikitzeko denboraraño

Orai guk eztugu ja ere erraten al gauze horren gañean

orai bizitzen da pusken hobeki orduen beño

ta gero hure karri larrañera

Although at times exceptions to this rule may be heard:

gazteenetaik abiatu zarreneraino

oaiñik eskribitzen ziren neri iortzen giñekonak

Neither the t nor the l receive palatization after i, except in Urritzola:

hemen gu ixil-ixilik ginauden

hamazazpi familie kuxetagileak ginen

Ta hemen sortu te hemen nik uste hemen nik uste hilen naizen ere

Orai e iten dire

pues iiteas moztu iten zen

Han pasatu ginituen izan zaizken kalamidade handien-handienak

Zenbaiti etzaote iduritiko

ta trabiesa bakarra ehun kilotaik goiti

But cf:

oain itten den gauzendako

igual bi hillebetez, geldittu bage

 

28- Forms such as buruba, mendiya, with a transition sound are unknown while they do exist in areas of the Northern High Navarrese.

29- In Mezkiritz and Usetxi forms of the Aezkoan type with a loss of the -i- between vowels can sporadically be heard. This is common in the demonstratives:

Hoek tire [<hoiek]

Hemen, pues, garie, olua, hoetaik [<hoietarik]

hemen ez baitziren ja haetaik [<haietarik]

Ba denbora haetan [<haietan]

pues denbora haetan jornala [<haietan]

It is also given in other forms:

pues iiteas moztu iten zen [<igiteias]

eskribitu nindakon baetz [<baietz]

But a lot of times in a hesitating form:

ardiek, ta behak, [<behiak] eta hoetaik

But cf. in the same town:

behiak eta bihorrak

Zenbaiti etzaote iduritiko [<zaiote]

iduritzen zaote gerra hori holako festa bat dela ; but cf. in the same town::

brabanian erraten zaion bezala

It does not seem to be used in Eugi.

 

30- In the declination, ea (etxea) and oa (astoa) often sound ia and ua (especially in the first case; ua for oa is rarer:

ezta xuxenbidia

bat Beltrania, nere etxia Juankonia, bertzia Juantenia

Larrazkenian, larrazkenian, bai. Martxoan ere zerbait eraikitzen zen

Larogei, lautan hogei,nahuzun klasian.

ordu betian iatzarri nitzen

Hemen, pues, garie, olua, hoetaik

hilabetero ginduen konpromisua inik

But the tendency is quite vacillating:

pantano in antzinean

hure azkenean, pean gelditzen zen

gazteago ze

Borz pezta egunean

izen balute permisoa, dretxoa izen bazuten

Larrazkenian, larrazkenian, bai. Martxoan ere zerbait eraikitzen zen

yatekoa bildu

 

31- These hiatus tend to be pronounced (although not always nor in all parts) monosyllabic (like a diphthong), perhaps as a consequence of the strong intense accent that is used in part of this dialect:

pantano in antzinean

bat Beltrania, nere etxia Juankonia, bertzia Juantenia

 

32- The vocal harmony is made in the totality of the dialect (dirua>dirue, ogia>ogie). Historically it was only absent in Arce and Egüés. As distinct from the Northern High Navarrese it appears both between morphemes (ogie) as well as in the interior of the morpheme: (uketu, ugeri, iketza etc. It is less intense in Mezkiritz:

afera hau de

eta azienda sartzen zelaik, denuntzietzen zuten goardek

izen balute permisoa, dretxoa izen bazuten

horko antzinderiek ta usetzen zuten

orai bizitzen da pusken hobeki orduen beño

Prezinteturik errotak

egun guzie, famili guzie

 

33- Traces can be seen of an old vacillation r/d (although nowadays it is not made). Especially in the morpheme of the dative case -da- (didan, zidan, etc):

ezpadirete sorik gaizki eramaten klinikara edo hola

oaiñik eskribitzen ziren neri iortzen giñekonak

frantsak ero [<edo]

gerra akaatute ere eztakit zenbat urtez iruki [<iduki] zieten han

 

34- It is quite common ( and almost exclusive to the High Navarrese speakers) for the verbs to lose the first vowel (aphaeresis): baki (=ebaki), karri, etc. Sometimes it also occurs with nouns: mazteki (=emazteki):

eta bahikorleat kartzen zuzten Eugire

hori zautu dugu guk

Ta nik zautu dutena hor, iauen-iauena da

’ta akaso bizimodu hobia torriko da

Nik lemixi... zautu nuen lemixiko urtetan

ta gero hure karri larrañera

Maztekiek beti, zegatik maztekie

ene familien eztut zautu, zautu tut bai, bertze familietan

Zein pozik torri nintzen ni

As a consequence of this it is common to find the distinctionman (=eman)/eman (=eraman):

Klaro, hemezortzi urtetan eman [=eraman] zieten

haiziak ematen [=eramaten] zuen

 

35- A vowel is also sometimes lost within the interior of the word (syncope) but this is a sporadic phenomenon, much rarer than in Northern High Navarrese (link Northern High Navarrese 33):

eta bahikorleat [<bahikorrale] kartzen zuzten Eugire

denen artian harpatzen [<harrapatzen] zute zerrie

 

36- In words like joan, jarri, jende, etc. the initial sound in this dialect resounds as -y among those dialects which are still in use, except in Urritzola where it is j-:

berriz denuntziek pagatzen zuzten, azienden yabeak

yatekoa bildu

trenean juan behaut lenbailen tierra hontatik

But the more recent loan-words and the typical Navarrese expressive word ja (=nothing, something) is sounded everywhere with a jay (j):

Orai guk eztugu ja ere erraten al gauze horren gañean

hemen ez baitziren ja haetaik

kasik adjudiketuik Baztandei Erregerena.

And sometimes in traditional terminations j can be heard because of the influence of other dialects and of the standard form:

egun guzien dozena bat jende

pues denbora haetan jornala

joaten ginden etxeko azienden lana

Historically, in this area the pronunciation x- was very common and which, according to data from Irigaray, reached as far as Uharte-Arakil. In Arce both the y- and x- concurred. In Oláibar and Juslapeña only y- was sounded. The x- in Egúés and Olza. There is also evidence in some areas of a pronunciation like the Spanish jay, such as Puente La Reina.

LEXICON

37- The lexicon of the Southern High Navarrese is not especially characteristic. Few words or variants of the corpus are unique to this dialect or even to the Navarrese Basque. Bahikorle (<bahi korrale) ┤a pen of confiscated herd┤ frantsa ┤French┤, the forms of iago and iagoen for gehiago and gehien, ja (ere) ┤nothing, something┤ (also in Northern High Navarrese); aundiz ┤a lot┤ (also in Northern High Navarrese); ortzi ┤to bury┤; puskan, puskaz, with comparatives (┤a lot more┤); eraiki ┤to sow┤lemixi ┤first┤, jende as a countable noun (┤person┤); igo ┤to grind┤.

eta bahikorleat kartzen zuzten Eugire

frantsak ero

Ta nik zautu dutena hor, iauen-iauena da

nik eztut iago zautu hemen

iaguenik Balentziara

Orai guk eztugu ja ere erraten al gauze horren gañean

zeatik auto aundiz pasatiko da

aitu behar zen ordu aundiz

biziik ortzi behar digute

orai bizitzen da pusken hobeki orduen beño

Larrazkenian, larrazkenian, bai. Martxoan ere zerbait eraikitzen zen

berriz azaroko kosetxa eraikitzeko denboraraño

Nik lemixi... zautu nuen lemixiko urtetan

egun guzien dozena bat jende

ta etzaike igo

 

38- If the Navarrese Basque in general and especially this dialect shows a peculiar physiognomy, this is due to the western character (near the French dialects) of the lexicon and variants which are used there: afera ┤matter┤, iduri izan ┤to seem┤, antzin (and altzin), gibel ┤in front of /behind┤, bertze ┤another┤, antzindari ┤authority┤/boss┤, artio ┤until┤, larrazken ┤autumn┤, orai ┤now┤, erran ┤to say┤, pean, petik, peko (as an independent element: peko etxea etc..) emazteki ┤woman┤, hertsi ┤to close┤, igorri ┤ to send┤, iratzarri ┤to wake up┤.

afera hau de

pues haiek iduri dute bautela han dretxoa

iduri zuen adelanto at haundienetaik zela

Eta gero, hordik antzine

Len berze gauze bat zen hemen

ene familien eztut zautu, zautu tut bai, bertze familietan

horko antzinderiek ta usetzen zuten

eztakit noiz artio izain den

Larrazkenian, larrazkenian, bai. Martxoan ere zerbait eraikitzen zen

Orai e iten dire

orai ya, ezta yausik hoetaik ikusten

Erran dutena aixtian

hure azkenean, pean gelditzen zen

Maztekiek beti, zegatik maztekie

errota guziek hertsiik zauden

oaiñik eskribitzen ziren neri iortzen giñekonak

ordu betian iatzarri nitzen

 

39- The Southern High Navarrese, like all spoken Basque, contains many loan-words of various types:

Moreover, it keeps many loan-words and old tracings which have been eliminated in the written form through a sense of purity: pagatu, ┤to pay┤, akabatu ┤to finish┤ eskribitu ┤to write┤, gainean ┤concerning┤, etc...

berriz denuntziek pagatzen zuzten, azienden yabeak

ze pagati behar zuten

gerra akaatute ere eztakit zenbat urtez iruki zieten han

oaiñik eskribitzen ziren neri iortzen giñekonak

Orai guk eztugu ja ere erraten ahal gauze horren gañean

And moreover it also contains many recent loan-words:

eta azienda sartzen zelaik, denuntzietzen zuten goardek

baztandarrak aprobetxatzen zuten Erdizaga

izen balute permisoa, dretxoa izen bazuten

pues, reparto in, mankomunidan, bien akorduekin

kasik adjudiketuik Baztandei Erregerena.

berriz azaroko kosetxa eraikitzeko denboraraño

karretera in behautela hemendik Frantziera

eta modifikatiko da

Prezinteturik errotak

aunkesea hilebete bat

egun guzian han dalekedale

trenean juan behaut lenbailen tierra hontatik

banakin ze kostunbre zuten goizez...

 

 

SINTAXIS

40- It is common to hear forms of the relative (explicative) with the prefix bait-.

41- In this dialect the suffix -larik substitutes -nean in all its functions:

eta azienda sartzen zelaik, denuntzietzen zuten goardek

ni haurre nitzelaik

hure ya xeatzen zelaik

eta astia ginduelaik, pues ala! kuxetara

ni bigarren kaderatik operatu nitzelaik

 

42- The dependent completives of uste can appear -n, at the least in Mezkiritz (this use is also known in the Baztan and Cinco Villas):

Ta hemen sortu te hemen nik uste hilen naizen ere

 

43- The causal conjunction zer(en)gatik is common in the whole zone, at times alone and at times combined with the suffix -n in the verbal form:

zengatik orai erretrasatuenak hoik izain zire

Maztekiek beti, zegatik maztekie

zeatik hor intzutelaik hori

zeatik auto aundiz pasatiko da

 

44- The comparatives can either be formed with the suffix -ago or by adding to this --ko:-agokoa (although it is not wholly adnominal).

45- A very eastern characteristic of these dialects is the use of -raino with a temporary value, unknown in the western dialects:

berriz azaroko kosetxa eraikitzeko denboraraño

 

46- The use of the periphrasis -ten ahal for the potentials is usual, even in negative sentences:

Orai guk eztugu ja ere erraten ahal gauze horren gañean

 

47- In the Southern High Navarrese free uses of the indefinite may be heard (mugababe) which are rare in the other peninsular dialects:

Lenago Eugiko herrie ederrago zen... Gauze ederrago zen Eugiko herria

gazteago ze

 

NORTHERN HIGH NAVARRESE

At present it is the most extensively spoken dialect in Navarre, although historically the Southern High Navarrese was the most extended.

Some 35,000 people speak this dialect in Navarra, in the localities of Arakil, Barranca (from Arbizu onwards), Larraun, Araitz, Cinco Villas, Imotz, Basaburua, Arano-Goizueta, Leitzaran, Ultzama, Anue, Malerreka, Bertizarana. Outside the province of Navarre this dialect is also spoken in Irun, Oiartzun and Hondarrabia.

In the greater part of its territory (except in Arakil, and at a low intensity in Ultzama) a natural transmission of this language continues to take place to a greater or lesser degree.

The dialect is not wholly homogeneous, some forms of the language are distinct from other areas. Thus, for example, the Barranca, quite a peculiar variety, is close to the Guipuzcoan of Navarre.

Its written form has been practically null, save for some poor quality religious writings. Some wills also exist from earlier ages, but their number cannot be compared with other dialects. Not even with the neighboring Southern High Navarrese. Meanwhile, its slight differences from the Guipuzcoan dialect has prompted the speakers to use this variety, at least on those more formal occasions (e.g. at public poetry recitations).

Beyond the common traits of spoken Basque the Northern High Navarrese is distinct from the standard form in the following characteristics


:

Morphology (verbal, nominal)/Phonetics/Lexicon/Syntax

MORPHOLOGY

Verbal

1-In most part of this zone , -a appears in the past tense of the strong verbs (synthetical): nakien, nauken, zakien, zagoen, zabilen... etc, (standard neukan, zebilen... etc.):

nik berandu artio ez nakin euskeras hitzik ere

kontestatu behar tzuten altxatuta zaudenak

ya beandu xamar zela baña ya bazkaltzeko zauken zerbait

However, the -e also exists within some areas of the dialect: in Leitza, Arano and Larraun (here it alternates with -a-):

Moxkortute hola bueltaka emen zebiltzen herriin

Hori enekin nik

dena preparatuba zeon

Also in the Barranca, forms such as zoken presuppose za-:

horrek ez zuken holako meritu haundirik, ezkil horrek etzoken

2-The nitzen form, without -n (standard nintzen) is a characteristic of the all the Navarrese - Basque speaking dialects:

ibiltzen nitzen herritan kartak partitzen

ta harrekin batian joan nitzen ni re

hasi nitzen Zentralian

hamabi urte nitulaiken joan nitzen artzai koxkorra

3-In the forms of the Nor-Nori- Nork, the pluralizing is -it-, like in the Nor-Nork (ditio..etc). This is a trait which is exclusive to this dialect (not found in any other, except for the Baztanese):

Orain jartzen ttiote

asko gauze nik ezautzen eznituenak ematen zitireten

However, in certain areas forms with -zki- appear, such as in Arano (in Leitza, of the dazkit type):

ta denak paatzen zizkiuten

4-In a part of the zone the use of due etc., for dute etc. At least in the area comprising Leitzaran, Barranca, Araitz, Larraun (here dui) and a part of Basaburua Menor:

baina soñuba denak diferentea due

billatu behar zuin makille eoke xamarra

horrek eakutsi ta dantzatzen zuin...

dena goittik bera bota zuen ta etzuen deusee bilatu

edan eitten due

5-Duzie (Larraun duzi) for duzue can be heard around the Ultzama and Larraun:

Badakizie holako kantue kantatzen?

6-In verbs which finish in -n (edan, egon, izan etc), the future form is generally in -en:

Eztittue bueltatu izanen

Yoanen zela gure etxera ta gurekin hitzegiñen zula

In many towns this final -anen, -onen is pronounced -ain, -oin:

dirua ere ezuten sobrante izain seguru aski ta

eta main dizut pasea

baño nik uste ot hemen eitten zenen inguruko herritan e eitten izain zela

The Guipuzcoan form -ngo is heard rarely in Larraun, Areso, Arano and Araitz.

7-Instead of diet, diezu, zien, zaie, etc. forms of the type diotet (=diet), zioten (=zien), zaiote (=zaie) are quite general in this zone, that is to say -ote instead of -e-:

haiei jokatuko ziotela horrek

ta esaten nioten soldadu hoiei:

In the areas where due(=dute) is used, they also say dioe (Leitza dioa) (=die), that is to say, -oe- (-oa-) for -e-:

Etxe guzie nastu in zioan

ezkaatzen esan giñioan

hark esan zioan etzula uste

8-In certain verbs with -n in almost all areas of this dialect the verbal noun is formed in -iten (generally pronounced -tten), like the French-Basque speakers: izatten, ematten, egotten, eramatten:

etzen goatzerik izatten

bertze jende turista erraiten ten horiek ere

Bai, izaiten da bizkorki

However, in Larraun, Araitz, Barranca and Ultzama we have -ten, and sporadically also in other parts, from the prestige of the standard form:

izate a tu-tut

9-For the past form of the Nor-Nori (zitzaion etc.) the root is -KI instead of -TZA in a part of the zone (Ultzama, Imotz and The Barranca) so zekion/zakion instead of zitzaion. In the Barranca this root is also used in the present tense: dakio etc. for zaio etc.:

asko gustetzen dakit

10-The verbal flexions, within their variety, share one main characteristic in general: the hiatus (zegoen, zuen, nekien, genuen, duela, dagoela... etc), are reduced to their first vowel (zegon, zun, nun, nekin, genun, dula, dagola... etc). This does not happen in the Barranca and Ultzama:

han izandu genitun atake goorrak

ne atte zenak eukitzen emen zun hoi prestatota gordii

nik berandu artio ez nakin euskeras hitzik ere

eta hori in ta ya beste zortzien bat urtes harrekin lan in nun

behiei kausitten ta pasatzen nun bizie

hamabi urte nitulaiken joan nitzen artzai koxkorra

gaizki pasatu giñun batzutan

But cf.:

nik dena itten nuen, goizien ta asaldien ta gaubien ta denetan

zer atra behar zuen esan zireten komedorian

11- As well as the earlier traits, which are systemized, it should be pointed out that in this dialect many non-standard verbal flexions may be heard. The version in unified Basque clarifies the equivalence in each case:

Geo eaman giñuzen (gintuzten) Oviedo bertaa

Pues, maiz zeatzen tzittuten, (zituzten) prestatzen tzittuten

sartu eztaizkenak (daitezke) ez biño betire erdi erdera ta...

ta joan ginen harea t┤ezkiñuzen (genituen) saldu

oain makinak eta badere (dira)

Bai nik e estudioik eztoket (daukat)

batien santuba sartu zubela errekaa sekoa ziolakos (zihoan)

ondo aittu yaiz (haiz) edo geizki aittu yaiz

ta gero artzai nindabillela (nenbilen)

12- In the periphrastic conjugation all types of verbal contractions may be heard, although the corpus is not sufficient to systematize and define the zones. The contractions of behar + transitive auxiliary are very characteristic in this dialect.

in beadiau horno at hor Zizurren, eta: nauk sozio?

bakarriken goaiñ oso diferente eitteunte lana

oain ya ortziralian lan in ta utzitzeunte

zuk oso ongi errezatzauzule arrosarioa

orain in behauzu

In behaizut pase bat Donostire joateko hillebete bateko

hitz in biait

13-There is a general tendency (non-distinctive) in the Navarre language to confuse the verbal paradigms nor-nork and nor nori-nork (generally in favor of the second). What is distinctive (it establishes an isogloss ) is the degree to which the tendency has been completed: total confusion characterizes the Southern High Navarrese. But in other speech-areas it also occurs (Ultzama) and as a tendency it is widespread: Ituren, Barranca:

ta honek emain dizu Donostira

kanpeonato askota eramaten tzieten

However, the difference is not lost everywhere:

Geo eaman giñuzen Oviedo bertaa

ta denak paatzen zizkiuten

14- However, the difference is not lost everywhere:

ni naiz Miel, nausi o itten dutena

Inversely, in some areas (at least in the Ultzama), the forms connected in -da- have reproduced a free analogical form in -da: zaida, zaira, dida, (and by way of harmonious vocalization zaide, zaire, etc. (although never with the forms such as dut, dakit, etc.)

naho nuen man balire komendante horretxek itxera joateko

15- The casual suffix -lako has the variant of lako(t)z (and -lakos), as in the continental dialects:

batien santuba sartu zubela errekaa sekoa ziolakos

...txarrak! urte txarrak dire, eztelakoz

NOMINAL

16- All over this zone the -ak is not distinguished from -ek in plural:

baina soñuba denak diferentea due

usazaliak iten zte oihu batzuk

ta urdun kontestatu behar tzuten altxatuta zaudenak

17-The instrumental is -es over a large part of the zone (standard Basque: -z) just like in the Southern High Navarrese. Especially in the Barranca, where it is unique, but in other spoken areas (Basaburua, Ultzama, Larraun, Imotz), here in concurrence with -z:

ta gero bi urtes o in zen holako esibizio at

nik berandu artio ez nakin euskeras hitzik ere

Zer modues habille amigo Arroki

pues oñes ikasi orduko

18-The phonetic augmentatives in z- are typical of the Navarrese dialects: zuleta, zapela, etc. They also exist in other dialects, but here they are the normal:

zuleta bat zartai betekoa

19-In the numbers the forms with -tan are very common: hirutan hogei, lautan hogei (=hirurogei, laurogei), Although, these last ones can also be heard (for reasons of prestige of the Guipuzcoan and the standard form):

Nik lauetan hoite zazpi urte konplittu dittut

 

20-The nondik case in the indefinite and the plural forms is made in -tarik in the Ultzama, just as in the Southern High Navarrese.

21-In the Ultzama it is very common to use -arendako for -arentzat:

Zer egunek pasti ihaittuzun! Dena zuretako dao.

22-In words such as artzain, arrain, haurtzain, etc, in all the dialect the forms in -ai predominate: artzai, arrai, haurtzai etc:

hamabi urte nitulaiken joan nitzen artzai koxkorra

ta gero artzai nindabillela

23-It is quite general to keep the final Spanish -ón in the loan words (in standard Basque -oi): pantalona, perdigona, kamiona, jipona, botona, xabona. (although this is not the case with the older loan words: arratoi is general):

Ta kamionak kargatu

Eta, batallonian, batallona da...

A peculiarity of Leitza is the adaptation of -obe as this termination:

¡Viva, viva!, balkobetik fuerte esanez

24-In the demonstratives there exist many non-standard forms. It is particularly common to find the form harr- of the third person singular demonstrative:

ta harrekin batian joan nitzen ni re

ta harrentzat ematen giñun indarra

eta hori in ta ya beste zortzien bat urtes harrekin lan in nun

Eta bazen ordun harren... Kapitana Rufino zuen

Es normalísimo Hok por hauek, declinado hoketan, hoketara, etc.

nik hemen herri ttiki hoketaa, Zarranzaa ta holako... Goldaaza eta hoketaa

In Etxalar hek exists for haiek:

hek ikusi balimazte usua nola sartzen den

hekin jetxiazi al den guziya

 

 

PHONETICS

25-The automatic palatalization after -i is general and stronger than in other zones (it affects, for example, the auxiliary verb: ttuzu, ttugu etc). This does not happen in Etxalar, where there is no palatalization:

Zer egunek pasti ihaittuzun! Dena zuretako dao.

Tierra honetan egitten dittik bero ikaragarriek

But cf.:

ta azpiyan harrautzen tu.

 

26-On the western side of this dialect (Leitza, Goizueta, Malerreka, Bertizarana, Basaburua, Araitz, Larraun, Imotz) there is a tendency to open, above all, the u, but also the i: dot, dozo, dakizo, are typical flexions from Leitza, for example. Also many speakers pronounce -to in the participles in -tu (galdeto, harrapato):

ta geo sekatota de, euki...

hainbeste esker irui do etzaiola ematen

ne atte zenak eukitzen emen zun hoi prestatota gordii

Much less common is the e for i, although it does occur, especially in Larraun and in a part of Basaburua Menor: nek (nik), -tek (tik), -eken (-ekin), ekarre, eose (egosi) etc.:

nik oso gutxi besteik eztaket

hola galdezkan etorre zen batentzat

billatu behar zuin makille eoke xamarra

27-In the declination between the i and the article, a transition sound is built up as happens in a large part of Guipuzcoa: mendiya, ttikiya, herriya. This phenomenon occurs in Arano (but not in Goizueta), Cinco Villas, the north of Malerreka and the Barranca:

Gu, mutiko txikiyak giñala

ta azpiyan harrautzen tu.

eta orduan die batzuk han