On this page you will find the dialects of the areas and locations as two types of classification: traditional classification of Louis Bonaparte Loucien Koldo Zuazo current classification. By clicking on each of them, may find the description of the dialect and the towns belonging to it.
Arturo Campion, working from the map of Prince Bonaparte, includes the Basque language from the Burunda area (Ziordia, Olazagutía, Alsasua, Urdiain, Iturmendi and Bakaiku), Etxarri-Aranatz and the Ergoiena area (Lizarraga, Torrano and Unanua) within the same variety of dialect which he calls "Guipuzcoan from Navarra" while the Northern High Navarrese Basque begins from Arbizu onwards.
However, although the label "Guipuzcoan from Navarra" covers all these towns, there is a very clear dialect boundary between Etxarri and Bakaiku. That is to say, between the old countryside of Arañaz (Etxarri and Ergoiena) and the Burunda area.
Perhaps it is not very precise to use this same label, as, besides the heterogeneous language it is arguable if these varieties could be classified as Guipuzcoan. Not all authors are of the same opinion. D. de Intza, in an article entitled "Burundako┤ko Euskalkia" in "Euskera III (1922), p.3-42, is particularly annoyed as expressed in the following translation :
"In line with L.L.Bonaparte, Mr. Kanpion wrote in his Gramática : In Navarre the Guipuzcoan dialect is spoken in the following towns, in Ziordia, Olazagutía, Alsasua, Urdiain, Iturmendi, Bacaicoa, Lizarragabengoa, Echarri-Aranaz, Unanua and Torrano.
But the Basque dialect which we are now going to introduce is not that of Guipúzcoa nor even of a similar variety.
Even supposing that the Guipuzcoan dialect had entered in the nearby towns I have been to Ortzaurte and in the district called Urtsaran in Segura, the closest to the Navarra passageway. In these two places I have found some language which is quite similar, but quite different to the Burunda dialect in almost all its forms. "
As regards the vigor of the language, there are also large differences: the three towns of Ergoiena are the ones which have best maintained the language where there is a percentage of almost 100% of Basque speakers. In Etxarri-Aranatz the percentage of Basque speakers drops dramatically (some sources speak of some 50%). In the Burunda, in the three most western-bound towns, Ziordia, Olazagutía and Alsasua, the Basque language is extinct or almost extinct. The situation is also critical in Iturmendi. In Bakaiku the situation is somewhat better, but equally grave since the only speakers are the elderly of the town. Within this outlook however, the case of Urdiain stands out, where, despite being surrounded by towns which are totally romance speaking places, the town has surprisingly managed to conserve an energetic level of Basque language.
Anyone wishing to amplify this data can find a detailed account of the Basque speakers from Etxarri-Aranatz and Ergoiena in Etxarri Aranazko Euskera eta Arañaz Elkarteko Hiztegia written by Rafael Carasatorre, Jose Luis Erdozia and Eugenio Ulaiar. For the Burunda area see Kandido Izaguirre┤s article "Altsasuko euskeraren gai batzuk" and Dámaso de Intza┤s "Burundako┤to Euskalkia", Euskera III (1922) p. 3-42.
Beyond the common traits shared by Basque speakers in general, the "Guipuzcoan from Navarra" deviates from the norm in the following characteristics:
Morphology, (verbal, nouns), phonetics, lexical and syntax
1-In the past tense of strong verbs (synthetics) the -a appears: nakan, zakien, ... etc, (standard neukan, zekien... etc.):
2. It is a characteristic of the Navarrese Basque Speakers (except in the Pyrennes, although also in the Aezkoan dialect) to use the form nitzen, without -n- (standard nintzen):
3. As in Guipuzcoan, in the intransitive auxiliary the contraction of -a + -e is -a-: zan, ziran etc. (standard zen, ziren etc.):
The nitzen, giñen etc forms which can be heard is due to the harmonic vocalization (see enumeration 33), the same as some appears in the form zen:
4-4. In the same way, the forms of the relative are of the western type dan, dala, etc (standard den, dela):
However, the general quantifier dena ("everything") which has the same origin, is dena in Etxarri and Ergoiena (Burunda dana):
5. The verbal pluralizer -te from the standard (dute) is in Etxarri-Aranatz and Burunda (b)ie, as in the Barranca (debie, zabien, dakibie, etc):
This is probably -ie in origin (-ee?)and the -b-is an inferred analogy from a false shortening of the auxiliary forms (debie, zabien) where it could come from the -u-(<*deu+ie) cf. the present dau "it has" "has").
However in Ergoiena we find -e:
6. Parallel to that, for the verbal morpheme of the dative: -e-(zaie, die, etc.) in Northern High Navarrese and Lower Navarrese ote- we find -obie- in Etxarri and -oe- in Ergoiena (see Northern High Navarrese 7):
7-7. The plural of the morpheme -zu- (standard Basque: -zue-) is -zubie-in Etxarri ( probably also the -ie- with -b- adventitious):
8. In Ergoiena this final ending sounds -zie (dezie, dakizie), as in Southern High Navarrese and Northern High Navarrese:
9. The present tense of the transitive auxiliary in Etxarri is of the Guipuzcoan type (det, dezu, deu, degu, dezubei, debie), but in Ergoiena and Burunda there also exists forms in -o-:
10. The flexions of the verb eduki are in -aka- in Etxarri and Ergoiena (daka, dazka, zazkan). But in Burunda -uka-:
11. In those verbs which end in -n (edan, egon, izan etc.) the future form is very irregular: In Etxarri and Ergoiena forms are heard in -nko, apparently of recent usage:
But the forms in -en can also be heard, even at times with verbs which don┤t end in -n:
In Burunda they are pronunced in -ain like in most of the Navarrese speeches:
12-For the Nor-Nori (standard Basque: zitzaion, etc.) the root in Etxarri and Ergoiena is -KI-, as it is in the Barranca (cf. Northern High Navarrese 9) even in the present tense:
However, in the Burunda the standard forms -za- (zaio, zitzaion) are used:
13-The form in -rik in the past participle is in common use (-turik, etc.) and this is rare in the Northern High Navarrese:
14-Nevertheless, the Guipuzcoan forms in -ta are not unknown and it would seem that they are gaining ground:
15- In parallel the adnominal forms in -ikako are normal (-ikeko, for harmony vocalization) as against the Guipuzcoan -tako/-dako:
16- As well as the earlier characteristics, which are systematic, many non-standard verbal flexions may be heard in this dialect. The standard Basque version clarifies the correspondence in each case:
nolabaitte ux garbitan den (dauden)
17- A recent morphological innovation, common to many Basque dialects, is the analogical reflection of the relative forms of flexions in -t. The old form is -dan, -dala (dudan, dudala, zaidala, etc) but they are commonly doten, dotela, daktela, etc. reworked on the free forms dot, dakit, etc.:
18-Inversely to Burunda, the free forms in -da appear, as in the Ultzama, or Southern High Navarrese, reworked on the connected forms:
19- The casual suffix -lako has the variant -lakos:
20- -ak is don┤t distinguished from -ek in the plural form:
21-The instrumental is -s in Etxarri and Ergoiena:
However in Burunda, the standard form -z is used:
22-The nondik case is sounded without the final -k. The same thing happens with the suffix from the same origin -gatik:
23- -arendako is used instead of -arentzat.
24-In the whole area of the Barranca the morphological rules -tik,>-dik and -ko>-go have extended their area of use and work after any consonant (and not only after n o / as in the other dialects): Aizkorazargo, Ondazgo (<Ondatz), Miguezgo (<Miguetz)... etc.
25-In words such as artzain, arrain, haurtzain, etc, throughout the dialect, the forms in -ai: artzai, arrai, haurtzai etc. predominate, just as they do in the Northern High Navarrese and the Southern High Navarrese:
26-The Spanish ending -ón is kept in the loan words (in standard Basque: oi): kamiona, botona, although not in the older words: arratoi).
27-In Burunda the words with an organic -a are inflected in -ea on receiving the article, just as in the Biscayan dialect:
In Etxarri and Ergoiena this phonological rule does not exist, although sporadically forms can be heard in-ea:
28-In Ergoiena associative forms in -eki can be heard, although in concurrence with the standard form -ekin:
29-The dative plural is -ai:
30- The automatic palatal after -I marks a very clear isogloss between Burunda, where it does not exist, and Etxarri, where it is very common:
Cf. In Burunda:
31-In Etxarri and Ergoiena, in the declension, a transition sound is developed between the -i and the article, just as in a large part of Guipuzcoa -y-: mendiya, ttikiya, herriya.
This even happens before the demonstratives:
In Burunda there can also be heard:
But with vacillations:
32-After -u, an epenthesis is also developed in these same towns -b-: burube, alube, sakristauba:
In Burunda, although the phenomenon may be heard, it is more sporadic and in many cases is not fulfilled:
33-In Etxarri and Ergoiena with words such as etxea and astoa the -e- is closed with an -i-:
In Burunda, although it exists, this inflexion is much more sporadic:
cf. without inflection:
34-The vocal harmonic (dirua>dirue, ogia>ogie) is stronger in Etxarri and Ergoiena, as it is the Barranca, sounding as much in the interior of the morpheme as between morphemes:
This affects groups even where i and u are secondary, derived from e and o (see point 33) an unknown characteristic of Navarra and which echoes Biscayan speakers:
In Burunda there is also a certain tendency towards harmony, but not systematic.
35-Distinct from the Northern High Navarrese, the total assimilation of the hiatus of the declension (baserrin, ogik ,etxek, eskuk, etc) is rare in the Guipuzcoan of Navarra, although it can occasional be heard:
But normally the hiatus are kept, helped by the already-mentioned transition sounds (cf.30 and 31)::
36-The assimilations of vocals which have remained in contact after the loss of a consonant are characteristics of the whole zone (also of the Barranca zone), especially in the declination through loss of -r-: amaakin (<*amaekin <amarekin), Rosaritooki (<*Rosaritoeki<Rosaritoreki), katubaana (<*katubaena<katubarena), goldaaki (<*goldaeki <goldarekin, golda “arado”). The vocal just before predominates as can be seen.
37-This produces a great quantity of long vowels (doubles?):
In Ergoiena this also happens in the interior of words: ataa “to take out”<atea<atera; paatea “wall” <paetea <paretea; abaatsa<abeatsa<aberatsa... etc. But not in Etxarri: atia “to take out” (<atea<atera); abiatsa “rich” (<abeatsa < aberatsa).
38-There are traces of apheresis (loss of the first vowel) in the verbs:
39-More frequent is the loss of the final vowel of the participle before the auxiliary or before behar or nahi (apocope):
40-In Etxarri-Ergoiena the diphthong -ai- tends to evolve into ei just like in Barranca:
41-In Burunda an inverse change takes place: ei>ai.
42-The diphthong eu tends to pass to au in all the Guipuzcan of Navarra, like in the Ultzama:
43-There is a trace of an old confusion r/d, although nowadays it doesn┤t seem to occur. In general, just like in the Barranca, the variant de for re (ere after a vowel: ni re bai, ni de bei):
44-In words such as joan, jarri, jasa, jende etc in this dialect the initial resonance sounds j:
45-The Guipuzcoan of Navarra is a dialect which is very characterized in all its facets, including its lexicon. Distinctive words, variants and exclusive acceptations abound in this dialect: udx "water"(dx notes an affricate palatal sonorant which only exists in these words); itzoo or itzoi, "ascend"( probably from *itzogo, cf. southern itzego "to horseride"; itzoo is also used in the Barranca); erabai "to say", ebai "to cut"; urai "to have" (these three words show that the verbal morpheme -ki (erabaki, ebaki, eduki) is here -gi , as in Biscayan); ezan "to be" (only in Ergoiena); bekala "like"(only in Ergoiena); buruzagi "warden" (it is also common to hear albinte); intxor "chestnut, chestnut-tree", arrontz "egg"; raso/arraso "completely" (other dialects have arras); apiz "priest" (apez, only in Burunda, Etxarri and Ergoiena); and finally, expressions such as eltzik itea fan "to die" (literally, to go and make waves)::
46-Terminations and variants also abound which are very common among Basque Navarran speakers without being exclusive to this dialect goartu "to realize"; Probintzia "Guipuzcoa"; baia "but"; fan "to go"; orai "now" (pronounced goai in Etxarri and Ergoiena and oai in Burunda); iyor, iyora, etc. "nobody", "nowhere" etc. (these last four variants are also common to Salazarese and Baztanese, curiously enough); oldio "moss"; bage "without"( pronounced bee in Etxarri and bai in Ergoiena and Burunda); beix "once more"; trebe izan "to dare", "to be capable of" (cf. the Spanish, atreverse); gizaki "male" (a marked termination in relation to emakume); irruti "afar"; saldo "flock".
47-As is the case in all the Basque-speaking dialects, there are many loan words from the Spanish language. Sometimes these are very general and widely extended (entendittu), sometimes rather sporadic (not generally used): preguntatu. It is curious to find the use of the termination tia "woman" as a loose substantive, but izu "the same one" put before a proper name (izu Petra):
It is also quite frequent to insert Basque expressions in Spanish, and to use the numbers in the Spanish form sometimes:
48-The restrictive relative in -n functions freely to express all kinds of grammatical relations, even in cases where this is not usual in written form:
49-In the whole zone it is quite common to find the causal conjunction zer(en)gati, on its own, or combined with -n in the verbal form:
50-Nolabaitte (with -n in the verbal form) is an exclusive conjunction in use, at least in Etxarri:
51-The order of words is much freer than in the standard form. Sentences which would be ungrammatical in the standard form appear quite normally, as for example with syntax forms without a prefix in the absolute beginning: