Dialects

On this page you will find the dialects of the areas and locations as two types of classification: traditional classification of Louis Bonaparte Loucien Koldo Zuazo current classification. By clicking on each of them, may find the description of the dialect and the towns belonging to it.

Guipuzcoan

Arturo Campion, working from the map of Prince Bonaparte, includes the Basque language from the Burunda area (Ziordia, Olazagutía, Alsasua, Urdiain, Iturmendi and Bakaiku), Etxarri-Aranatz and the Ergoiena area (Lizarraga, Torrano and Unanua) within the same variety of dialect which he calls "Guipuzcoan from Navarra" while the Northern High Navarrese Basque begins from Arbizu onwards.

However, although the label "Guipuzcoan from Navarra" covers all these towns, there is a very clear dialect boundary between Etxarri and Bakaiku. That is to say, between the old countryside of Arañaz (Etxarri and Ergoiena) and the Burunda area.

Perhaps it is not very precise to use this same label, as, besides the heterogeneous language it is arguable if these varieties could be classified as Guipuzcoan. Not all authors are of the same opinion. D. de Intza, in an article entitled "Burundako┤ko Euskalkia" in "Euskera III (1922), p.3-42, is particularly annoyed as expressed in the following translation :

"In line with L.L.Bonaparte, Mr. Kanpion wrote in his Gramática : In Navarre the Guipuzcoan dialect is spoken in the following towns, in Ziordia, Olazagutía, Alsasua, Urdiain, Iturmendi, Bacaicoa, Lizarragabengoa, Echarri-Aranaz, Unanua and Torrano.

But the Basque dialect which we are now going to introduce is not that of Guipúzcoa nor even of a similar variety.

Even supposing that the Guipuzcoan dialect had entered in the nearby towns I have been to Ortzaurte and in the district called Urtsaran in Segura, the closest to the Navarra passageway. In these two places I have found some language which is quite similar, but quite different to the Burunda dialect in almost all its forms. "


As regards the vigor of the language, there are also large differences: the three towns of Ergoiena are the ones which have best maintained the language where there is a percentage of almost 100% of Basque speakers. In Etxarri-Aranatz the percentage of Basque speakers drops dramatically (some sources speak of some 50%). In the Burunda, in the three most western-bound towns, Ziordia, Olazagutía and Alsasua, the Basque language is extinct or almost extinct. The situation is also critical in Iturmendi. In Bakaiku the situation is somewhat better, but equally grave since the only speakers are the elderly of the town. Within this outlook however, the case of Urdiain stands out, where, despite being surrounded by towns which are totally romance speaking places, the town has surprisingly managed to conserve an energetic level of Basque language.

Anyone wishing to amplify this data can find a detailed account of the Basque speakers from Etxarri-Aranatz and Ergoiena in Etxarri Aranazko Euskera eta Arañaz Elkarteko Hiztegia written by Rafael Carasatorre, Jose Luis Erdozia and Eugenio Ulaiar. For the Burunda area see Kandido Izaguirre┤s article "Altsasuko euskeraren gai batzuk" and Dámaso de Intza┤s "Burundako┤to Euskalkia", Euskera III (1922) p. 3-42.

Beyond the common traits shared by Basque speakers in general, the "Guipuzcoan from Navarra" deviates from the norm in the following characteristics:

Morphology, (verbal, nouns), phonetics, lexical and syntax

 

MORPHOLOGY

VERBAL

1-In the past tense of strong verbs (synthetics) the -a appears: nakan, zakien, ... etc, (standard neukan, zekien... etc.):

Ez zakielakos euskeas

berdiñe gertatu behar zakiyola

2. It is a characteristic of the Navarrese Basque Speakers (except in the Pyrennes, although also in the Aezkoan dialect) to use the form nitzen, without -n- (standard nintzen):

eta aitte galduko ote nitzen bildurraaki garraxis

3. As in Guipuzcoan, in the intransitive auxiliary the contraction of -a + -e is -a-: zan, ziran etc. (standard zen, ziren etc.):

hasi zan ikusita Urbasan gertatzen ai dana

bea fantzan urtien de

ta faten zan Bizkaiaa

The nitzen, giñen etc forms which can be heard is due to the harmonic vocalization (see enumeration 33), the same as some appears in the form zen:

hasi zen abionetetati

Orduben goartu giñen

4-4. In the same way, the forms of the relative are of the western type dan, dala, etc (standard den, dela):

hasi zan ikusita Urbasan gertatzen ai dana

eztakibielakos mendiko girue nola dan da errespetatzen

eztana gelditzen minutu batien de

However, the general quantifier dena ("everything") which has the same origin, is dena in Etxarri and Ergoiena (Burunda dana):

dena euskeas hitzeitten da

5. The verbal pluralizer -te from the standard (dute) is in Etxarri-Aranatz and Burunda (b)ie, as in the Barranca (debie, zabien, dakibie, etc):

eztakibienak mendiye errespetatzen

eztakibielakos mendiko girue nola dan da errespetatzen

eta ez zugubien erabaitzen gauze

iak eztebiela hondatzen iak bizi behar dien lekube

beix e bota in dittubiela aurten

This is probably -ie in origin (-ee?)and the -b-is an inferred analogy from a false shortening of the auxiliary forms (debie, zabien) where it could come from the -u-(<*deu+ie) cf. the present dau "it has" "has").

However in Ergoiena we find -e:

goaiko modernidadekue baakie

6. Parallel to that, for the verbal morpheme of the dative: -e-(zaie, die, etc.) in Northern High Navarrese and Lower Navarrese ote- we find -obie- in Etxarri and -oe- in Ergoiena (see Northern High Navarrese 7):

ardiyai gustatzen dakiyobielakos gehiei

7-7. The plural of the morpheme -zu- (standard Basque: -zue-) is -zubie-in Etxarri ( probably also the -ie- with -b- adventitious):

zer iruitzen dakizubie hau, zer iruitzen dakizubie beste

8. In Ergoiena this final ending sounds -zie (dezie, dakizie), as in Southern High Navarrese and Northern High Navarrese:

nahi deziena intzazie

9. The present tense of the transitive auxiliary in Etxarri is of the Guipuzcoan type (det, dezu, deu, degu, dezubei, debie), but in Ergoiena and Burunda there also exists forms in -o-:

ikes daun pixke

nahi deziena intzazie

Nik soruen asko lan in dot

Nik lan in dot behieki eta idiyeki

gizona de trankilo ibilen don

10. The flexions of the verb eduki are in -aka- in Etxarri and Ergoiena (daka, dazka, zazkan). But in Burunda -uka-:

geau bagendukatzien ikaagarrizko hiru arbola

setentaisiete duketzit

11. In those verbs which end in -n (edan, egon, izan etc.) the future form is very irregular: In Etxarri and Ergoiena forms are heard in -nko, apparently of recent usage:

"Zu ez ba zaa trebe, al dotena nik inkoot, gizona"

Fabriken inkook

alkar jokan aspaldiyen ionko uzkeke

But the forms in -en can also be heard, even at times with verbs which don┤t end in -n:

gizona de trankilo ibilen don

In Burunda they are pronunced in -ain like in most of the Navarrese speeches:

Urtiak izein dia

12-For the Nor-Nori (standard Basque: zitzaion, etc.) the root in Etxarri and Ergoiena is -KI-, as it is in the Barranca (cf. Northern High Navarrese 9) even in the present tense:

buruzagie esaten dakiyok, oai aguazilla esaten diore

eztakitena gustetu, eztotena entendittu

zer iruitzen dakizubie hau, zer iruitzen dakizubie beste

ardiyai gustatzen dakiyobielakos gehiei

nai iruditzen dakit hori biharrezkua litzekela, ezta?

berdiñe gertatu behar zakiyola

However, in the Burunda the standard forms -za- (zaio, zitzaion) are used:

Asko gustatu zaira nei dantzia, asko

13-The form in -rik in the past participle is in common use (-turik, etc.) and this is rare in the Northern High Navarrese:

nahiko erreik bizi nok!

intxorrak plantatuik duketzi

oai galduik dao raso

14-Nevertheless, the Guipuzcoan forms in -ta are not unknown and it would seem that they are gaining ground:

hasi zan ikusita Urbasan gertatzen ai dana

15- In parallel the adnominal forms in -ikako are normal (-ikeko, for harmony vocalization) as against the Guipuzcoan -tako/-dako:

eta hilikekuek e gutxi ya

16- As well as the earlier characteristics, which are systematic, many non-standard verbal flexions may be heard in this dialect. The standard Basque version clarifies the correspondence in each case:

kus giñuben interesgarriye izengo litzekela (litzateke)

ta ez giñekigun (genekien)ez iak eta ez guk

eta ez zugubien (ziguten) erabaitzen gauze

alkar jokan aspaldiyen ionko uzkeke (hituzke)

Eta dotriñea, klaro, preguntatu in zuuten (zidan)

holaxe ibiltzen gindan (ginen)

jendiak ibazi iten dau (du) asko

Morkotsa esaten gendean (genion) guk

nolabaitte ux garbitan den (dauden)

17- A recent morphological innovation, common to many Basque dialects, is the analogical reflection of the relative forms of flexions in -t. The old form is -dan, -dala (dudan, dudala, zaidala, etc) but they are commonly doten, dotela, daktela, etc. reworked on the free forms dot, dakit, etc.:

Goai, ezin dotelakos fan

al doten lan guzie in dot

eztakitena gustetu, eztotena entendittu

18-Inversely to Burunda, the free forms in -da appear, as in the Ultzama, or Southern High Navarrese, reworked on the connected forms:

Asko gustatu zaira nei dantzia, asko

19- The casual suffix -lako has the variant -lakos:

eztakibielakos mendiko girue nola dan da errespetatzen

Goai, ezin dotelakos fan

Ez zakielakos euskeas

NOMINAL

20- -ak is don┤t distinguished from -ek in the plural form:

billera at uraitu giñuben Probintzia aldeko ta naparrak

21-The instrumental is -s in Etxarri and Ergoiena:

izeiñes beteik eoten diela

izeiñan problemontas

eta aitte galduko ote nitzen bildurraaki garraxis

However in Burunda, the standard form -z is used:

ta faten gindan San Pedrora oinez

eta mutilak etxez etxe ta

 

22-The nondik case is sounded without the final -k. The same thing happens with the suffix from the same origin -gatik:

horreati aukeratu giñuben hori

hasi zen abionetetati

zengati biyek ttattarrito atzuk dian

labrantzati

23- -arendako is used instead of -arentzat.

24-In the whole area of the Barranca the morphological rules -tik,>-dik and -ko>-go have extended their area of use and work after any consonant (and not only after n o / as in the other dialects): Aizkorazargo, Ondazgo (<Ondatz), Miguezgo (<Miguetz)... etc.

25-In words such as artzain, arrain, haurtzain, etc, throughout the dialect, the forms in -ai: artzai, arrai, haurtzai etc. predominate, just as they do in the Northern High Navarrese and the Southern High Navarrese:

Orduben artzeiek lehendabizi, ezta?

26-The Spanish ending -ón is kept in the loan words (in standard Basque: oi): kamiona, botona, although not in the older words: arratoi).

27-In Burunda the words with an organic -a are inflected in -ea on receiving the article, just as in the Biscayan dialect:

Asko gustatu zaira nei dantzia, asko

Lenoko jotia eta dantzia sanuo zan askoz e

In Etxarri and Ergoiena this phonological rule does not exist, although sporadically forms can be heard in-ea:

Eta dotriñea, klaro, preguntatu in zuuten

28-In Ergoiena associative forms in -eki can be heard, although in concurrence with the standard form -ekin:

Nik lan in dot behieki eta idiyeki

aitte ta amaaki lanien

nola basuen egurretan, bi pareeki iguel, nola mendiyen egurretan

29-The dative plural is -ai:

ardiyai gustatzen dakiyobelakos gehiei

PHONETICS.

30- The automatic palatal after -I marks a very clear isogloss between Burunda, where it does not exist, and Etxarri, where it is very common:

berdiñe gertatu behar zakiyola

kus giñuben interesgarriye izengo litzekela

izeñes beteik eoten diela

Eta dotriñea, klaro, preguntatu in zuuten

nei ez geo rekordatoio auskaldunik , e!

mendiyoiten alleatzien jende arrotzok

buruzagie esaten dakiyok, oai aguazilla esaten diore

nolabaitte ux garbitan den

beie behar ttu kondizio batzuk urtzeko ta

dena euskeas hitzeitten da

Cf. In Burunda:

Hilik do bea

Gaztaina mozten bezela

ta faten gindan San Pedrora oinez

eta mutilak etxez etxe ta

jendiak ibazi iten dau asko

31-In Etxarri and Ergoiena, in the declension, a transition sound is developed between the -i and the article, just as in a large part of Guipuzcoa -y-: mendiya, ttikiya, herriya.

eztakibienak mendiye errespetatzen

behar da auriye

Gizakiyek lan gehiao, gizakiyek

This even happens before the demonstratives:

mendiyoiten alleatzien jende arrotzok

In Burunda there can also be heard:

Baia jornal txikiya

But with vacillations:

Zengatik bizia hola zon

serioa bizimodua

 

32-After -u, an epenthesis is also developed in these same towns -b-: burube, alube, sakristauba:

Orduben goartu giñen

iak eztebiela hondatzen iak bizi behar dien lekube

tekniko ospetsubok

o kontubek

Bei, ni auskaldun lekuben jaiaua

In Burunda, although the phenomenon may be heard, it is more sporadic and in many cases is not fulfilled:

serioa bizimodua

gue bizimodue

33-In Etxarri and Ergoiena with words such as etxea and astoa the -e- is closed with an -i-:

gaurko egunien desparasitantiek

mendiyoiten alleatzien jende arrotzok

bea fantzan urtien de

eztakibielakos mendiko girue nola dan da errespetatzen

eta hilikekuek e gutxi ya

Nik soruen asko lan in dot

goaiko modernidadekue baakie

In Burunda, although it exists, this inflexion is much more sporadic:

irrutikuek

jendiak ibazi iten dau asko

Urtiak izein dia

cf. without inflection:

serioa bizimodua

Morkotsa esaten gendean guk

34-The vocal harmonic (dirua>dirue, ogia>ogie) is stronger in Etxarri and Ergoiena, as it is the Barranca, sounding as much in the interior of the morpheme as between morphemes:

kus giñuben interesgarriye izengo litzekela

animeli bereziye

Fabriken inkook

o kontubek

This affects groups even where i and u are secondary, derived from e and o (see point 33) an unknown characteristic of Navarra and which echoes Biscayan speakers:

eta hilikekuek e gutxi ya

gaurko egunien desparasitantiek

Nik soruen asko lan in dot

bea fantzan urtien de

In Burunda there is also a certain tendency towards harmony, but not systematic.

serioa bizimodua

gue bizimodue

Gaztaina mozten bezela

Urtiak izein dia

Oaiko gaztiek... oaiko gaztiek

35-Distinct from the Northern High Navarrese, the total assimilation of the hiatus of the declension (baserrin, ogik ,etxek, eskuk, etc) is rare in the Guipuzcoan of Navarra, although it can occasional be heard:

denboa gutxiko laister eltzik itea

Bea beharrik gu beste pasta klase atekok gaituk

But normally the hiatus are kept, helped by the already-mentioned transition sounds (cf.30 and 31)::

Orduben goartu giñen

gaurko egunien desparasitantiek

eztana gelditzen minutu batien de

alkar jokan aspaldiyen ionko uzkeke

36-The assimilations of vocals which have remained in contact after the loss of a consonant are characteristics of the whole zone (also of the Barranca zone), especially in the declination through loss of -r-: amaakin (<*amaekin <amarekin), Rosaritooki (<*Rosaritoeki<Rosaritoreki), katubaana (<*katubaena<katubarena), goldaaki (<*goldaeki <goldarekin, golda “arado”). The vocal just before predominates as can be seen.

37-This produces a great quantity of long vowels (doubles?):

aitte ta amaaki lanien

eta aitte galduko ote nitzen bildurraaki garraxis

Luzioona, Mariaana,

In Ergoiena this also happens in the interior of words: ataa “to take out”<atea<atera; paatea “wall” <paetea <paretea; abaatsa<abeatsa<aberatsa... etc. But not in Etxarri: atia “to take out” (<atea<atera); abiatsa “rich” (<abeatsa < aberatsa).

38-There are traces of apheresis (loss of the first vowel) in the verbs:

kus giñuben interesgarriye izengo litzekela

39-More frequent is the loss of the final vowel of the participle before the auxiliary or before behar or nahi (apocope):

ikes daun pixke

Eman zuuten zaplasteko at , Hara! Zeruko izarrak eta guzi ikus nittuna, e!!

40-In Etxarri-Ergoiena the diphthong -ai- tends to evolve into ei just like in Barranca:

izeiñes beteik eoten diela

Orduben artzeiek lehendabizi, ezta?

beie behar ttu kondizio batzuk urtzeko ta

eta nere ama de bei

Bigarrena de bei, eta artue de bei, eta erremolatxa de bei

41-In Burunda an inverse change takes place: ei>ai.

42-The diphthong eu tends to pass to au in all the Guipuzcan of Navarra, like in the Ultzama:

behar da auriye

ikes daun [<deu<degu] pixke

nei ez geo rekordatoio auskaldunik iñ, e!

Goaiko auskerooi eztot entenditzen!

jendiak ibazi iten dau [<deu] asko

43-There is a trace of an old confusion r/d, although nowadays it doesn┤t seem to occur. In general, just like in the Barranca, the variant de for re (ere after a vowel: ni re bai, ni de bei):

eta nere ama de bei

bea fantzan urtien de

44-In words such as joan, jarri, jasa, jende etc in this dialect the initial resonance sounds j:

mendiyoiten alleatzien jende arrotzok

alkar jokan aspaldiyen ionko uzkeke

Baia jornal txikiya

LEXICON

45-The Guipuzcoan of Navarra is a dialect which is very characterized in all its facets, including its lexicon. Distinctive words, variants and exclusive acceptations abound in this dialect: udx "water"(dx notes an affricate palatal sonorant which only exists in these words); itzoo or itzoi, "ascend"( probably from *itzogo, cf. southern itzego "to horseride"; itzoo is also used in the Barranca); erabai "to say", ebai "to cut"; urai "to have" (these three words show that the verbal morpheme -ki (erabaki, ebaki, eduki) is here -gi , as in Biscayan); ezan "to be" (only in Ergoiena); bekala "like"(only in Ergoiena); buruzagi "warden" (it is also common to hear albinte); intxor "chestnut, chestnut-tree", arrontz "egg"; raso/arraso "completely" (other dialects have arras); apiz "priest" (apez, only in Burunda, Etxarri and Ergoiena); and finally, expressions such as eltzik itea fan "to die" (literally, to go and make waves)::

nolabaitte ux garbitan den

da itzoo giñen

eta ez zugubien erabaitzen gauze

arduroi urai ta

ba gehio estudio in be, gehio arduraik urai be

tximista bekala ez

Gaztaina mozten bezela

buruzagie esaten dakiyok, oai aguazilla esaten diore denboa gutxiko laister eltzik itea

intxorrak plantatuik duketzi

Arrontza ta irin ta esene

oai galduik dao raso

Zian bi apiz anaiek

46-Terminations and variants also abound which are very common among Basque Navarran speakers without being exclusive to this dialect goartu "to realize"; Probintzia "Guipuzcoa"; baia "but"; fan "to go"; orai "now" (pronounced goai in Etxarri and Ergoiena and oai in Burunda); iyor, iyora, etc. "nobody", "nowhere" etc. (these last four variants are also common to Salazarese and Baztanese, curiously enough); oldio "moss"; bage "without"( pronounced bee in Etxarri and bai in Ergoiena and Burunda); beix "once more"; trebe izan "to dare", "to be capable of" (cf. the Spanish, atreverse); gizaki "male" (a marked termination in relation to emakume); irruti "afar"; saldo "flock".

Orduben goartu giñen

billera at uraitu giñuben Probintzia aldeko ta naparrak

beie behar ttu kondizio batzuk urtzeko ta

Baia jornal txikiya

bea fantzan urtien de

ta faten zan Bizkaiaa

primera komuniyua ein eta kasik goai bittartien

Oaiko gaztiek... oaiko gaztiek

iyor molestatu bai

erreketan ioten dien oldiyo ta belarrak

ba gehio estudio in be, gehio arduraik urai be

iyor molestatu bai

Gizona pai

beix e bota in dittubiela aurten

"Zu ez ba zaa trebe, al dotena nik inkoot, gizona"

Gizakiyek lan gehiao, gizakiyek

irrutikuek

hemen arsaldo at

47-As is the case in all the Basque-speaking dialects, there are many loan words from the Spanish language. Sometimes these are very general and widely extended (entendittu), sometimes rather sporadic (not generally used): preguntatu. It is curious to find the use of the termination tia "woman" as a loose substantive, but izu "the same one" put before a proper name (izu Petra):

Tia, bea zu, ordia, auskaldune za

Hala esan zien izu Petrak. Bei.

Goaiko auskerooi eztot entenditzen!

Eta dotriñea, klaro, preguntatu in zuuten

It is also quite frequent to insert Basque expressions in Spanish, and to use the numbers in the Spanish form sometimes:

Eta ni, deseando

zengatik gue aitta izan da toda la vida izutiye basuen da ibiltzeko

setentaisiete duketzit

SYINTAX

48-The restrictive relative in -n functions freely to express all kinds of grammatical relations, even in cases where this is not usual in written form:

Eman zuuten zaplasteko at , Hara! Zeruko izarrak eta guzi ikus nittuna, e!!

49-In the whole zone it is quite common to find the causal conjunction zer(en)gati, on its own, or combined with -n in the verbal form:

zergatik goartu giñen

zengatik gue aitta ezan da toda la vida izutiye basuen da ibiltzeko

zengati biyek ttattarrito atzuk dian

Zengatik bizia hola zon

50-Nolabaitte (with -n in the verbal form) is an exclusive conjunction in use, at least in Etxarri:

Ta nolabaitte hemen Sakanan eztien nolanahi ikusten

nolabaitte ux garbitan den

51-The order of words is much freer than in the standard form. Sentences which would be ungrammatical in the standard form appear quite normally, as for example with syntax forms without a prefix in the absolute beginning:

Zian bi apiz anaiek