On this page you will find the dialects of the areas and locations as two types of classification: traditional classification of Louis Bonaparte Loucien Koldo Zuazo current classification. By clicking on each of them, may find the description of the dialect and the towns belonging to it.
This is the dialect spoken in Zugarramurdi and in Urdax. While this area belongs to the Upper Navarra administration zone, it is a prolongation, both geographically and linguistically speaking, of the Labourdin region.
Beyond the general characteristics of spoken Basque, the Basque in these areas is distinguished from the standard language by the following peculiarities
:Morphology (verbal, nominal)/ Phonetics /Lexicon/ Syntax
2-The contractions in the periphrastic conjugation are less frequent than in the Northern High Navarrese. However, those of behar and nahi + auxiliary verb: ereim beaut [erein behar dut]:
3- In this dialect many other non-standard verbal inflections can be heard. The version in standard Basque clarifies the equivalence in each case. See example : diozkat [dizkiot], diotza [dizkio]...:
4- In verbs finishing in -n (edan, egon, izan etc ) the future form is normally in en. The customary pronunciation is -ain: yain [janen].
5- In the Labourdin of Sare, on the other hand, the forms of Nor- Nori- Nork are also formed by the root -erau-.
6- There is a general tendency (non-distinctive) for the language in Navarre to confuse the two verbal paradigms Nor- Nork and nor-nori-nork (normally in favor of the second) On the other hand, in Zugarramurdi and Urdax there is a tendency to use the first one.
7-The causal suffix -lako has the variant -lakotz: eztakizulakotz eztuzu errain:
8- In the imperative and subjunctive forms as well as in the conditionals, the Labourdin of Sare makes use of the verbal root.
9-Instead of diet, diezu, zien, zaie, etc. in this zone forms such as diotet (=diet), zioten (=zien), zaiote (=zaie) are in almost general usage, i.e. ote instead of -e-.
10- Distinguishes -ak from -ek in plural.
11- The normal contraction of the genitive singular is -ain.
12- The allative is in -rat:
13- The romance ending in ón has been adapted as -oin (in Northern High Navarrese -on ; other dialects as -oi):
14- The romance suffix -(c)ión as been adapted as -zoine (Northern High Navarrese as -zio):
15-It is very common to find the numbers with the following forms -tan: hirutan hogei, lautan hogei (=hirurogei, laurogei). It is also known in the form bi(d)a (bide) from the numeral bi, used as a pronoun..
16- Traces of an ancient vacillation r/d have also been found (although it does not seem to be in use nowadays) Above all in the morpheme of the dative case -da- (didan, zidan, etc): idatze [iratze]:
17- The automatic palate of n and l after i does not exist: zikinak, azila:
18- In the declination, -ea (etxea) the sound is -ea. In Sare, on the other hand, it is -ia.
19- In the declination, -oa (etxea) it sounds as -oa:
20- The vocal harmony (dirua>dirue, ogia>ogie) is inexistent:
21- The loss of the sounded inter-vocal consonant is frequent: laumbata [larunbata]:
22- In words such as joan, jarri, jende, etc the initial sound expresses as -y :
23-The aspiration was general in the Labourdin from Sare, but at present it would seem to be in recession in this variety, where its use is limited to a few concrete words. In the Zugarramurdi and Urdax speech, some echoes of its pronunciation in various voices can be appreciated: ajoa [ahoa], ojea [ohea]...
24- The lexicon of this dialect form is clearly eastern. Many variants and terms are characteristic of the continental Basque speakers: anitz (a lot), guzi (all), orai (now), artio (until), ontsa (well), nior (someone, no-one) ukan (to have)..
25- Its location means that it uses many loan-words from French: muntra [erlojua].
26- The periphrasis -ten ahal for the potentials is in use, even in negative sentences :
27- The direct object of verbal nouns in -te/tze (ikuste, hartze, etc.) goes in the genitive.
28-In relative clauses and other subordinates bait is used.
29- The lack of agreement between a nominal syntagma in the dative and the verb is frequent.
30- Like in continental Euskara and a part of the Northern High Navarrese, the suffix -larik(an) has taken on the temporary functions of the suffix –nean: Baztan torri zelaik.