Dialects

On this page you will find the dialects of the areas and locations as two types of classification: traditional classification of Louis Bonaparte Loucien Koldo Zuazo current classification. By clicking on each of them, may find the description of the dialect and the towns belonging to it.

Labourdin

This is the dialect spoken in Zugarramurdi and in Urdax. While this area belongs to the Upper Navarra administration zone, it is a prolongation, both geographically and linguistically speaking, of the Labourdin region.

Beyond the general characteristics of spoken Basque, the Basque in these areas is distinguished from the standard language by the following peculiarities

:Morphology (verbal, nominal)/ Phonetics /Lexicon/ Syntax

MORPHOLOGY

Verbal

1- In the Labourdin dialect from Sare -a- appears in the past tense of the strong verbs (synthetics): zaraman, nakien, zakien, ... etc. (standard zeraman, nekie, zekien... etc.):
banakien

2-The contractions in the periphrastic conjugation are less frequent than in the Northern High Navarrese. However, those of behar and nahi + auxiliary verb: ereim beaut [erein behar dut]:

errateutes

Azpilkuetara ganbehaut

3- In this dialect many other non-standard verbal inflections can be heard. The version in standard Basque clarifies the equivalence in each case. See example : diozkat [dizkiot], diotza [dizkio]...:

izain zuen bere eskubidea emen

ezpaitakit nik ordun nola izain zien bainon 

4- In verbs finishing in -n (edan, egon, izan etc ) the future form is normally in en. The customary pronunciation is -ain: yain [janen].

5- In the Labourdin of Sare, on the other hand, the forms of Nor- Nori- Nork are also formed by the root -erau-.

6- There is a general tendency (non-distinctive) for the language in Navarre to confuse the two verbal paradigms Nor- Nork and nor-nori-nork (normally in favor of the second) On the other hand, in Zugarramurdi and Urdax there is a tendency to use the first one.

7-The causal suffix -lako has the variant -lakotz: eztakizulakotz eztuzu errain:

bazuelakotz eskubidea 

8- In the imperative and subjunctive forms as well as in the conditionals, the Labourdin of Sare makes use of the verbal root.

9-Instead of diet, diezu, zien, zaie, etc. in this zone forms such as diotet (=diet), zioten (=zien), zaiote (=zaie) are in almost general usage, i.e. ote instead of -e-.

 

NOMINAL

10- Distinguishes -ak from -ek in plural.

11- The normal contraction of the genitive singular is -ain.

12- The allative is in -rat:

horrat

13- The romance ending in ón has been adapted as -oin (in Northern High Navarrese -on ; other dialects as -oi):

arrazoina gainetik nola ematen dioten

14- The romance suffix -(c)ión as been adapted as -zoine (Northern High Navarrese as -zio):

kontribuzioneak e bai 

15-It is very common to find the numbers with the following forms -tan: hirutan hogei, lautan hogei (=hirurogei, laurogei). It is also known in the form bi(d)a (bide) from the numeral bi, used as a pronoun..

 

PHONETICS

16- Traces of an ancient vacillation r/d have also been found (although it does not seem to be in use nowadays) Above all in the morpheme of the dative case -da- (didan, zidan, etc): idatze [iratze]:

bainon, klaro nik dena  

 

17- The automatic palate of n and l after i does not exist: zikinak, azila:

nik franko zaila ikusteut orren konpostura 

 

18- In the declination, -ea (etxea) the sound is -ea. In Sare, on the other hand, it is -ia.

larrean ateratzen zuten luberria 

hemengo yendea akituko garela instantean

19- In the declination, -oa (etxea) it sounds as -oa:

 

20- The vocal harmony (dirua>dirue, ogia>ogie) is inexistent:

larrean ateratzen zuten luberria

 

21- The loss of the sounded inter-vocal consonant is frequent: laumbata [larunbata]:

hemengo yendeak ia zaartu ga

22- In words such as joan, jarri, jende, etc the initial sound expresses as -y :

hemengo yendeak ia zaartu ga

23-The aspiration was general in the Labourdin from Sare, but at present it would seem to be in recession in this variety, where its use is limited to a few concrete words. In the Zugarramurdi and Urdax speech, some echoes of its pronunciation in various voices can be appreciated: ajoa [ahoa], ojea [ohea]...

 

LEXICON

24- The lexicon of this dialect form is clearly eastern. Many variants and terms are characteristic of the continental Basque speakers: anitz (a lot), guzi (all), orai (now), artio (until), ontsa (well), nior (someone, no-one) ukan (to have)..

25- Its location means that it uses many loan-words from French: muntra [erlojua].

 

SYNTAX

26- The periphrasis -ten ahal for the potentials is in use, even in negative sentences :

biek ez dute izaten aal 

27- The direct object of verbal nouns in -te/tze (ikuste, hartze, etc.) goes in the genitive.

28-In relative clauses and other subordinates bait is used.

29- The lack of agreement between a nominal syntagma in the dative and the verb is frequent.

30-  Like in continental Euskara and a part of the Northern High Navarrese, the suffix -larik(an) has taken on the temporary functions of the suffix –nean: Baztan torri zelaik.