On this page you will find the dialects of the areas and locations as two types of classification: traditional classification of Louis Bonaparte Loucien Koldo Zuazo current classification. By clicking on each of them, may find the description of the dialect and the towns belonging to it.
This is the particular dialect of the Salazar valley. In the classification made by prince Bonaparte, the Salazar dialect was considered a variant of the Lower Navarrese,
just like the Basque spoken in Valcarlos. However, it has its own individuality and it can be considered as an independent dialect, as it has been regarded by the Basque General Dictionary.
It is a form of speech in almost complete decline. Some speakers of this variety remain, but the language is not being passed on in any natural manner.
Beyond the general characteristics of spoken Basque, the Salazar dialect deviates from the standard form in the following features:
Morphology (verbal, nouns), Phonetics, Lexicon and Syntax
1- The verbal pluralizing -te (standard dute, dakite, zenuten, zuten, zekiten) appears like -e:
A. In the third person of the transitive verbs: die, zien, zakien, zaela (standard dute, zuten, zekiten, (de)zatela):
B. In the second person of the past of the auxiliaries: zinien, zintzaien (zenuten, zineten).
This produces certain changes to maintain the oppositions between both persons: duela/diela (batua duela/dutela), zuen/zien (zuen/zuten), zinuen/zinien (zenuen/zenuten):
2- The intransitive auxiliary is regulated by way of the root -za- (<izan): nintzan, zintzan, zintzaien, gintzan (but zen):
3-The nor-nori-nork is constructed, as in the continental Basque, by the root -erau contracted to -au-:
For the third persons, however, forms in -ako- are used.
4- -a- appears in the past tense of the strong verbs (synthetics): nakien, zakien, zabilen... etc, (standard neukan, zebilen... etc.):
But cf. with -e- (from foreign influence?):
5- Just as in the Northern High Navarrese and the Southern High Navarrese it is quite common to find the aphaeresis of the auxiliary transitive in the present: tut, tuzu, etc (ditut, dituzu, etc):
6- Conditional intransitives can be heard in -ke: daike, zaiken etc (standard daiteke, zitekeen):
Although more standardized forms also heard:
7- The second person in the present tense plural of nor-nork is in -zie (standard -zue), like in Ultzama and part of Northern High Navarrese.
8- Just as in the Ultzama, the connected forms zaidan, didan ,etc have produced free analogical forms in -da:
9- Verbal forms of the past can be sporadically heard with -n, of the Southern High Navarrese and of the Lower Navarrese. But this is quite rare. In Ochagavía only -n exists. In Esparza, more to the south and closer to the Southern High Navarrese, both -n and -0:
10- With verbs finishing in -n (edan, egon, izan etc ) the future form is in -en:
11- As in Southern High Navarrese this dialect also has the form -rik of the verbal participle in common use, yet this is unusual or very rare in the Northern High Navarrese (except in the Barranca). After -tu it appears characteristically syncopated in -trik:
12- In the subjunctive, conditional and imperative the radical verb is always used, even in recent loan words:
13- Just like the Southern High Navarrese this dialect does not recognize the verbal nouns in -iten (emaiten, erraiten) which are characteristics of the Northern High Navarraese and the French-Basque dialects:
14- As well as the previous mannerisms, which are systematic, in this dialect it is possible to hear many other non-standard verbal inflections: niz, ginuen, etc. The version in standard Basque clarifies the equivalence in each case.
15- The advanced stage of erosion of this dialect could explain aberrant usage and some of the forms as sporadic cross -overs due to linguistic insecurity:
16- The most noticeable feature - something exclusive to the Salazar dialect- is the form in -ra of the determined singular of themes in -a: bordara, elizara, euskarara (standard borda, eliza, euskara, biscayan bordea, eleizea, etc, < a+a):
17- The additive is in -ala, just as in the Souletin dialect and parts of the Lower Navarrese (The Roncalese has -ara…) This suffix acts like as the locative -an i.e. as if it started with a consonant. It is added directly after the vowel (erdiala, as erdian) but after a consonant it needs a connecting vowel -e-: oihaneala, as oihanean. *Oihanala would be agrammatical. (As would *oihanan):
Sometimes the -e- of -eala- is assimilated by the previous palatal:
18- It distinguishes -ak from -ek in plurall:
19- The instrumental is -z, but in Esparza there is a vacillation with the form in -s, typical of the Southern High Navarrese and Aezkoan:
The vacillation with -s seems to be limited to Esparza, closer to the Southern High Navarrese:
20- The normal contraction of the genitive singular is -ain.
21- For the numbers forms with -tan are used: hirutan hogei, lautan hogei (=hirurogei, laurogei).
22- The nondik case is indefinite and in the plural it is formed in -tarik:
23- -arendako is used for -arentzat.
24- In words such as artzain, arrrain, haurtzain, etc. throughout the dialect (just as in the Northern and Southern High Navarrese ) the forms in -ai predominate: artzai, arrai, haurtzai etc (as against the -ain found in the Baztanese, the Lower Navarrese, and the Labourdin):
25- Se mantiene la final castellana -ón en los préstamos (en batua -oi): pantalona, perdigona, kamiona, botona, xabona.
26- The demonstratives have an inicial k-, as in the Roncal dialect (Lower Navarrese g-) kau, kori, kor etc. However, a certain vacillation may be detected, perhaps due to the influence of foreign words:
But cf. too:
27- This dialect freely constructs syntagmas in the indefinite where it would be impossible in other dialects:
28- On the other hand, some reduplicated adverbs take an article:
29- The suffix -tarik has the western meaning of ┤each┤ in expressions of time:
30-The intensive pronouns are of the eastern type guhaur, nihaur, etc.
31- Just as in the Souletin, the indefinite archaism of etxe: etxen ┤at home┤ as against etxean ┤in the house┤:
32- Numbers have many non-standard forms: laur, hirur, bedratzi, egun, bida (pronoum; bi adjective):
33- The pronouns inor, inon, etc have forms without -n- (ior, iora etc.)
34- Just as in Southern High Navarrese, the automatic palate sound of n is only voiced after the semivowel i (beño, gañean):
but not after i vowel:
It is unusual to hear ñ after i vowel, no doubt, due to the foreign influence:
Neither t nor l become palatal after i:
ll can be heard in recient loanwords:
35- In the declination, -ea (etxea) the sound is -ia:
But we can also hear -ea:
-oa hiatus does not change:
36- There is a tendency to pronounce these hiatus (although not always) in monosyllabic (like a diphthong) perhaps as a consequence of the accent:
Due to this, sometimes -e- is assimilated by its previous consonant:
37- Vocalic harmony (dirua>dirue, ogia>ogie) does not exist:
38- The loss of a vowel in the middle of a word is frequent (syncope):
*in odd words: abre, erman, atra, denbra, graitzu, bedratzi, Erribra:
*in the declination: -tra, trik (<-tara, -tera, -turik):
But not in nondik case: (-taik, -tarik):
39- As a trace of the old aspirated h, sometimes the g is kept in:
40- The phonological rules of bait + auxiliary govern in bait+d, but not in other cases:
41- In words such as joan jarri, jende, etc. in this dialect the inicial sound is -x, xan, xin, xei, xunto, xarduki:
But it sometimes sounds as j-, in recient loanwords from Spanish and in the word amaberjina: (cf. Aezkoan amaberkina, with -k- also of jey)..
42- The Salazar dialect is not very characterized by its lexicon. There is little vocabulary, variants, or admittances from the corpus that can be considered exclusive or almost exclusive to this dialecto: izaundu, `to know´, ozteki `burial´ (<ortzi `to bury´), xateki `banquet´, xarduki `to talk´, eseri `to put´, oritu `to remember´:
43- The most manifest lexicon irregularities are due to the oriental character of the variants and terms used in this dialect (often shared by the Southern High Navarrese): guti `a little´, bertze `another´, erran `to say´, xin `to come´, Manex `Juan´, murru `wall´, orai `now´, zonbait `someone´, zomat `how much´, zamari `horse´, ele egin `to talk´, egotzi `to throw´, baratu `to stay´, hirur `three´, laur `four´, biztu `to light´, xukatu `to dry´, eragu `to carry´, altzin `in front of´, elki `to go out, to take out´, ortzi `to bury´, yago, yagoen `more, the most´, igare ´to cross´, goatze `bed´, eho `to mill´:
baginuen bertze gauza bat, torno erraten baiginuen
44- There are two lexicon variants which are noticeable for their frequency and they are also used in the Barranca: fan ┤to come┤ and baia ┤but┤:
45- It must be underlined that strange expressions can often be heard in this dialect (oso, asko, esan, hitzegin), which indicates that there is frequent interaction with other variations (and erosion of this dialect):
46- Forms of the relative (explicative) with the prefix bait- can often be heard:
47- The verbal interrogative suffix -a is used:
48- The suffix -nez exists in indirect absolute interrogatives:
49- In this dialect the suffix -larik predominates over -nean, although the latter also exists:
The scant use of -nean would lead one to deduce foreign influence or to accommodate the speech of the interviewer.
50- Comparatives with nola are often heard, like in Aezkoan:
51- The expression halik eta ┤until┤ is used with nouns with a time significance::