Dialects

On this page you will find the dialects of the areas and locations as two types of classification: traditional classification of Louis Bonaparte Loucien Koldo Zuazo current classification. By clicking on each of them, may find the description of the dialect and the towns belonging to it.

Navarrese

Situation

Although in comparison to other dialects, Navarrese Basque does not have many distinctive features, the fact that it has its own personality is undeniable. Furthermore, although it covers a large territory and differences are noted between some speech and others are noted, a high degree of homogeneity is observed within the dialect, as there are common features throughout the territory where it is spoken. That is why we have a single dialect in the new classification instead of the two distinguished by Bonaparte.

Four main subdialects may be distinguished within the Navarrese dialect: north-eastern, south-eastern, interior and eastern. The speech of the valleys of Erro and Esteribar are included in this, which Iñaki Camino for his part situates in what he refers to as the southern subdialect of the Navarrese dialect, like the speech of the Arce valley and most of the Pamplona Basin. Thus, the subdialect expressions of the east (Zuazo) and the southern dialect (Camino) might be considered as synonyms within the Navarrese dialect.

Furthermore, three transition zones may be distinguished within this dialect: Aezkoan (—included by Camino within the southern subdialect — transition between Navarrese, eastern Navarrese and Navarrese-Lapurdian), Baztanese (transition between Navarrese and Navarrese-Lapurdian) and Burunda (transition between the western, central and Navarrese dialects).

The Navarrese dialect is only spoken in Navarre, although it is true that the speech of Guipuzcoan towns such as Oiartzun, Irun and Fuenterrabía contains Navarrese features.

Main characteristics

1/ The accent is one of the most characteristic features of this dialect.It is strong and the stress is nearly always on the last syllable:

E.g.: Orai guk eztugu ja ere erráten al gáuza hórren gáñean

In contrast, in north-western speech, the stress is often on the second syllable: larúnbata, txokólte ‘txokolate’...

E.g.: Pues hark abisten du

Lastly, the accent is not as strong in la Barranca and bears a certain resemblance to the central and western dialects.

2/ The initial vowel of the word is often missing as a result of the strong accent (clipping): karri, zautu, mazte...

E.g.: nik diferentzia aundiz, zautzen det

hore leitzeko man tzirena, oaiñik ere makume hore bizi de

eta main dizut pasea

torri zen egun hemeretzigarna

Also inside the word (syncope) abre ‘abere’, botzen ‘botatzen’....

E.g.: zer atra behar zuen esan zireten komedorian

usazaliak iten zte oihu batzuk

pues hark abisten du

oihu iten te nola ikusten zten

eskopetekin guti ikuskozu han, e?

torri zen egun hemeretzigarna

Aizkora ez, ya gu hasi giñenko bazien motosierrak

harek itten du abuduago yautsi gaintik beheiti

3/ The Romance endings in — (i)on are adopted without there being any changes in this dialect: frontona, kamiona...

E.g.: Ta kamionak kargatu

Eta, batallonian, batallona da...

4/ The –s is pronounced in the case of ZERTAZ / NOLA: oines, eskus, burus...

E.g.: ta gero bi urtes o in zen holako esibizio at

nik berandu artio ez nakin euskeras hitzik ere

Zer modues habille amigo Arroki

pues oñes ikasi orduko

5/ A y-: yaiz ‘haiz’ is pronounced in the second person singular verb form. This is an old innovation which has spread to the eastern Navarrese dialect and to the north-east of Guipúzcoa.

E.g.: ondo aittu yaiz edo geizki aittu yaiz

6/ The NOR-NORI-NORK verb series is pluralized by a Navarrese –it– : Although this dialect is not widespread throughout the territory, we do find it elsewhere in the north-east of Guipúzcoa.

E.g.: Orain jartzen ttiote

7/ The root —ki— appears in the NOR-NORI verb series in a large area. In la Barranca, this phenomenon is also extended to the present tense forms: dakit ‘zait’.

E.g.: buruzagie esaten dakiyok, oai aguazilla esaten diore

eztakitena gustetu, eztotena entendittu

zer iruitzen dakizubie hau, zer iruitzen dakizubie beste

ardiyai gustatzen dakiyobielakos gehiei

nai iruditzen dakit hori biharrezkua litzekela, ezta?

berdiñe gertatu behar zakiyola

8/ The u > i has evolved within two different contexts in a more confined area of dialect: the most widespread is -tuko > -tiko (pasatiko ‘pasatuko’)

E.g.: Orai, zer pasatiko den

zeatik auto aundiz pasatiko da

eta modifikatiko da

Zenbaiti etzaote iduritiko

and the least common is –tu behar > -tiar: frakasatiar du ‘frakasatu behar du’ .

E.g.: arrosarioa errezati bihar duzu

zuk errezati ihar duzu

Zer egunek pasti ihaittuzun! Dena zuretako dao.

Eztuzu ja ere pagati ihar

9/ As far as lexicon is concerned, mention may be made of the following words: banabar ‘indaba’, ostots, ortots ‘trumoi’, ugalde ‘ibaia’...