Themes

smuggling [46 results]

Recording Piece Others themes Sumary
D-001 A07 anecdote
D-001 A08 anecdote
D-003 A12
D-035 A05 anecdote - civil war - mill - hunger
D-039 A04
I-028 B02
I-034 B07 anecdote
I-095b B07
II-002 A04 war
IR-011a A10
IR-016 A07
IR-022b B10 anecdote
IR-022b B07 locality: - jobs:
IR-022b B09
N-023 A03
N-023 A04 anecdote
N-023 A05
SM-007b B10
SM-007b B11 anecdote
SM-007b B12 anecdote
SM-007b B13
SM-011 A30
SM-011 A32 anecdote
I-033b A1
I-007 B10
I-039 B08 miscellaneous
SM-006a A03 Mezkiritz has changed. They were born there but they were taken for outsiders. He thinks that was out of envy. The problem of the water.Perpetua thinks the same. She has never been given wood.People from the village look at them out of the corner of one´s eye. A woman form the village told her that she was taken by crazy, she was a very bad writer and why she wrote.
I-089 A04 anecdote When they were carrying the packets over the mountain they suffered from bad weather.He went more with livestock than with packets.The tale of a man: he did not not get the merchandise correct, he was barred, he went as a guide.A Civil guard began to fight with a man from Ciáurriz, the man took away his rifle and the Civil guard began to cry.When they were passing over horses from the army from Urepel, they lost their way and they were shot at from a house. That same one took part and they began to fire from a pinewood. All that over two ten pesetas. There were many Civil guards but they too could be bought.Other times the Civil guards would take the packets and when they were asleep they would tiptoe up and get them back. They would smuggle nylons, tacks, coffee.There were always spies who would control the guards. An anecdote about a spy dog.
II-111a A08 carlist war They lived from agriculture and livestock. Then the commercial business started on the frontier and this put a lot of business in their way.The frontier was created in 1530. And as this was set up with any questions asked, that made the people from there start to smuggle, with the motley collection of merchandize of that time. They would go to the place where it was cheapest. After the war it was mostly traffic from France into Spain. All kinds of things: traditional footwear, cloth, chocolate, sugar, flour...The period of the Carlist wars. The treatment they received. They did not suffer from that. They did not have to leave the villages.For them the smuggling has been beneficial. Clashes with the Civil guard. Anecdote.Nowadays there is not the same movement. Now drugs are passed through. Instead of catching the local people they stop those from outside.
II-033b A07 anecdote Wool was also smuggled over. They never did any smuggling. There were particular men who did that.They used to handle the bread.
II-047a A01 Introduction: many laborers bought livestock themselves and then they would smuggle it over the other side of the border to sell it.(03.00”) How he began with the smuggling: He was working in a house and he began to sell eggs undercover along with his boss. It used to take them two hours to reach Luzaide/Valcarlos with the basket on their shoulders. Then they started smuggling horses. He knew about horse-smuggling as a young man. They bought the horses in Donapaleu and they would always sell in Hegoalde. They always took the route at night. There was no problem until you reached Donibane. It could be any kind of horse. They smuggled seven or eight at the same time and they would usually do that twice a week.(15.00”) He was informed on once. He was in a hut and the guards were sent there. What took place.(19.25”) The informers were often paid.They had special signals. The colors and stars on the horses. In the mountain it was tough work but they didn’t get confused or lost.Once over the border the deals were not always the same. Sometimes too, they had to turn back and sell the horses in Donibane. (25.15”) At that time you could make some money with the peseta. Those that were caught they lost what they had but for someone who had a solid place in the business, even though it was dangerous, it was worth doing it. The people who worked at the smuggling got paid depending on the risks taken.They needed a guy to take over the horses, because it was necessary to have someone ahead to make sure the road was clear. What happened to him.(31.50”) As well as being young, you had to be clear that you could really do the job without fear, because sometimes there was not even light from the stars.He knew that one day he would be caught and when that day came he fled to America.In order to do that work it is necessary to know the livestock.Smuggling was especially rife in the war years. After that it gradually eased off.When they were with the horses they would return without anything else. The deal was not completed at the same time. They were paid some days later. For them it was the same to be paid in pesetas or in franks. The peseta was not changed in the bank. That was another type of smuggling.In his time, as well as horses there were many other types of goods being smuggled. Some lost their lives at that business and many had frightening and dangerous moments.(47.00”) Goodbye.
II-052a A01 commodity Introduction.(0.30”) He learnt about smuggling from a very early age. A lot of mules, old cows, sheep, parcels… were passed over through his barn. In the parcels there were bottles, tobacco, buttones… all the people on his mother’s side were at the smuggling. The mules came from Hazparne and then they were taken over “by strings”. The mule smuggling.He began to work at seventeen. Before that he used to do some smuggling with mares. The ones who did the smuggling were farmers. The lorry parts were taken to Guipúzcoa, Bilbao and Pamplona. A lot of copper was also smuggled. A lot of the smuggling was coming from Switzerland.The Civil guards were easy to buy off. The wardens were not so easy.There were also people, jews and others, who were smuggled over.When the Germans and the Americans were there they used to use some letters made by Basque-speaking coronels authorizing them to work on the pastures. The Germans killed some smugglers, but they, the young people, were not afraid.
II-052a A02 Jews (19:43") He has never met a spy.They used to hide the Jewish families in the huts of the vineyards. They would hide there for one day. He does not know how they arrived to there. On the other side of the frontier many would walk as far as Elizondo. There they were free.When they were young there were informers about. Many Basques were discovered that way. The Jewish smuggling went on from 1942 to 1944, when the Germans left.
II-052a A03 nylon (27:35") After the war the smuggling of livestock and parcels continued.Those people from Sara and Aldudes prepared it along with the Spanish ones and a lot of nylons were taken to Vitoria, Bilbao, Pamplona, Zaragoza and Barcelona. It was brought without any problem from Luxemburg and then it was taken over to Elizondo in lorries and cars. He went to Barcelona himself. It stopped about 1982, after lasting some ten years. A lot of copper was also taken over. It was unloaded in the monk’s monasteries.
II-052a A04 Portuguese The Portuguese were earning little money at home. In France, however, they were free and they contracted everyone to do the work. How they left Portugal and how they crossed the frontier.There were some who went over in the belief that there was work to be found and later they were not able to find any. Once the man started working the rest of the family would come over. There have always been people from Portugal to take over, but in 1963 and 1964 there were more than ever.
II-052a A05 Many Basque farmhouses survived thanks to the smuggling. The land did not make enough money. Sara, Baigorri, Aldudes… these have survived thanks to smuggling. The smuggling has changed a lot. Nowadays, there is a lot of bad things, drugs and money.He would never deal with drugs, although he was offered the chance.(46:10") Goodbye.
N-020 A03 Others worked as smugglers. What was most taken over from France was haberdashery stuff. Nylons, thread, angora, wool, bobbins… They packets would weigh 30-40 kilos. The smuggling was almost always done by night and without any kind of light because the light could be seen from afar.At the beginning they used to do very long hauls. Later they divided it into sections and shared the takings. Most of it would go to Barcelona. The Guards surprised him three times and as they lost the goods they did not get paid for those nights. The Guards would try not to shoot, so that the others would not know that they were there. In the dangerous spots they would go one by one and in the less dangerous spots, two by two.
D-072 A01 anecdote They used to do some smuggling in the area of Bidasoa. Anecdotes. In order to cross the Bidasoa it was necessary to take off all the clothes and tie them around the neck.
SM-006a A03 He has crossed over to Iparralde many times, smuggling. Normally they never knew what they were carrying, usually they were packets of twenty five kilos in weight. They were paid about ten pesetas per night. They would pick up the stuff in Aldude and bring it to Mezkiritz. It would take three or four hours as they did not follow the road.
II-119b A01 Sanfermines - jobs: - fairs: horse fair Introduction: the horsefair took place during Sanfermines. (02:30”) Love of horses has been there since he was a kid, as he grew up among horses. On Sundays he used to go to church in a cart pulled by horses. His father was a laboror on the land but he also had some horses. He died when the speaker was only eighteen months old but at home everyone loved horses.At that time the horses were not put out on the mountainside, but kept at the house as they were needed for work there. He went to the horse-fair in Pamplona for the first time in 1950. Since then he has been many times. The dealers from Andalucia would come with all their family in caravans to sell old horses and to buy young ones.The fair began on the 7th of July and lasted three or four days. There would also be horses from there at the fair but they were smuggled ones, as it was not permitted to cross the frontier with horses. People from Hegoalde would collect them and deal with the Andalucians. Those people were very different, people would say that they looked like gypsies, but they had money to buy horses. Many horses from the Baztan area were also taken by them.About smuggling.(10:55”) The manner of doing the dealing was very different. They were people from a hotter climate and their way of life was very different. He never learnt to do any dealing. He would only go to watch. It was not easy to find a place to sleep but they would usually find a barn or something to sleep in. (12:50”) At that time the horses were only used for work.Those from the South would come with orders to buy fifteen or twenty horses, as there were few tractors in Spain then. In Pamplona at that time there would be a big number of horses. Nowadays the Fair is quite different.
II-119b A03 animals: horses They would take many old horses over to France for meat. The young horses would come from Iparralde to Hegoalde and the old horses from Hegoalde to Iparralde. All that was done by smuggling.They also smuggled over cows and other things. After the civil war in Spain nothing was left and they would eat even animals in poor health. After that the people did not eat so much horse meat in due to the bad publicity.
IR-019 A04
IC-014a A11 More or less all the villages of Aezkoa have done some smuggling. But he does not think there is any now.
N-018a A01 It is not finished.
II-176b A06 When he was young and before going to America, he used to smuggle horses and mules. Any old thing was smuggled; they normally used to pass through Irisarri and Esnazu. The route. When the guards discovered them, they ran away leaving the load behind them. On those occasions they lost their day’s wages. They were paid 5000 francs a night, while those working as farm workers in houses earned 2000 a month.
II-162b B14