Themes

America [33 results]

Recording Piece Others themes Sumary
D-008 A01 jobs:
D-013 A01 anecdote - indiano
D-035 A10 anecdote
D-064 B01 jobs:
D-064 B02 anecdote - animal husbandry: seasonal migration
D-064 B04 improvised verse
I-028 A03 jobs:
I-028 A06 jobs:
IR-011b A01 jobs: - jobs:
IR-016 A04 jobs:
N-052 A04 school - jobs
SC-002b A03 jobs:
I-056 A11 jobs:
I-056 B03 jobs:
SM-009 A03 anecdote - travel To go to America they went by train to France to get the boat there. They were ten days in the boat. The first four days they did not leave their cabin because of the bad weather. In America he went to New York as that was the place to get the papers and permissions for the trains. Some of them were Basque Speakers. He went to Utah. He was there for a couple of years . He came back by train, passing through Chicago and Washington and he did the whole journey alone as there was nobody else on the train.In New York he got off the train and meet a Spanish agent. He took the tramline with that person and went to a Spanish hotel. There he met three Frenchmen. They had to wait for five days for the boat to sail. They were twelve days on the boat until they arrived in Cadiz. From there they went to Barcelona and from there to Pamplona by train.
SM-009 A04 jobs: Shepherd life in America: size of the flocks, lambs and coyotes.
SM-009 A06 jobs: When they were working as shepherds in America, they used to be in carts.
SM-009 A09 nutrition: - jobs: How he made bread when he was a shepherd in America. They made a hole in the ground about the size of a tray. There they put in hot ash and then left the tray of dough about one hour in the hole.
SC-002c A04 jobs: His life as a shepherd in America.
X-015b A01 jobs: At the age of nineteen he went to America to work as a shepherd with a lad from Gartzain and another from Arizkun with a contract for three and a half years. They took the train in Bilbao and went to Madrid. They took a plane to New York from Madrid and from there another one to Los Angeles. A Basque-speaking woman met them at the airport and the very next day he started to work alone. In winter the shepherds meet together more often, but in summer he would only see the camp man once a week. In the beginning it was very hard, the lonliness of it all. Later at night he would leave the sheep alone and meet up with other shepherds. He had to learn to do everything: to clean, to cook, to sew…When the contract was up he came home. He started working with the house chores but he had no luck with the livestock and he went off again to America. It was a similar kind of contract but in a different place. This time he knew the work. He has always liked sheep. When he finished the contract his boss arranged his papers so that he now had residency. Then he came back again. After another two years at home he went back again for the third time. And this time he stayed there. Nowadays he has more friends there and here he gets bored.
X-015b A03 jobs: In America he has sheep but he does not work as a shepherd. He gets up early and feeds the animals. By nine o’clock he has finished .They have a good breakfast and they are free until two. At midday the sheep are fed again and by five they are free again.
X-015b A04 Basque language: In the town where he lives there are no Basque-speakers but they organize a "euskal jaia" and they get together. This year four planes came out from Euskal Herria.About those who went with him.
X-015b A05 work - youngs - lifestyle: Over there to cover large distances they use the train or the bus. The people from there are more normal than the people here. People come up to greet you. About the change: When he went away the only car in the village belonged to the doctor. The young men over there work harder than here. The young people here do not want to work the land with the excuse that it is not economical. The young people prefer to work eight hours in a factory and then be free. The wages over there have not gone up in the last few years. Now nobody goes over from here. People from South America go now to do the work.Although the land does not give much money the people there would not sell it.
N-020 A02 jobs: Other young men were going off to America, just like him. They would go on a three-year contract. They were put in charge of two thousand sheep. They would move from place to place wherever there was pasture land. The owner would bring food up to them but they had to look after themselves and do the cooking and even make the bread which was the hardest part. The owner would give them flour and yeast but they had to make the bread themselves. There were times when they had a lot of time on their hands, but other times, especially when the sheep were lambing, when they no time for anything. They had to wake up earlier than the sheep so that they would not be scattered about. The black sheep were the ones who controlled the others. It was impossible to count all of them but to see the black ones was easier. When one of them was missing they would tell the owner that a sheep was missing. Then the owner would go down and rent a light plane and find the sheep easily. When the sheep from one flock got mixed in with those of another flock the owner would not say anything to the other owner. But as the sheep had a brand on their back it was easy to distinguish them from the light plane.Sometimes he would get together with other shepherds. There were a lot of Greeks at the shepherding. They were forced to learn English. But as most of the owners could speak some Spanish, the Basques did not have the same urgency about learning English.When the contract was up they asked for the residency papers so that they could stay on. But one morning the foreman came along and told them that they had to be in Madrid within two days. They returned to the town and got themselves ready and the next morning they headed back to Madrid by plane. At that time working in the mountains was paid at about fifteen thousand pesetas per month. As there was no place that they could spend the money, they would save it. They would send the money home twice a year.
IC-002a A01 jobs: He spend a period in America milking cows and rearing calves, but in 1925 he returned to see his mother and he got married and stayed here.The work and pay in America. At the beginning they earned twenty-five pesos per month. When the work with one owner finished he went to another one. The three friends were together in Buenos Aires later. He had a sister there.
SC-007a A02 disease - jobs: Juan Cruz was in Euskal Herria last year. He found a big change and noticed how the Basque language has been lost in many areas.He went to Calafornia in 1925. He had already got three brothers there by then. They were a big family at home. Also, there was a practice then of escaping from doing the military service by going abroad. For these two reasons he took himself off to Calafornia. First he went to New York and from there to California. His brothers were not far off and a cousin took him to them. The first years were the hardest as he didn’t even have the language under control.He had his first health problem in 1950. He suffered a heart attack. It took a long time to get over the thing completely. In 1952 he bought sheep again and continued for four more years. But when he worked hard he would get the pain. The doctor told him not to sell the sheep but to get someone who could do the hard work for him. Later he worked as a wool buyer.
SC-007a A04 jobs: - animals: He began to work with sheep in 1930. Those were bad years, the worst in 1934. They went to another part of the country; they did eight hundred kilometers by train and on foot. The Government made them get rid of a certain percentage of sheep, because there were too many. The land they went through was mostly desert and mountain. They went with the sheep and they needed permission to get through certain places. The achieved their goal because they know how to measure the consignment they had. Others had to go back after halfway and they lost what they had. Crossing the Nevada sierra they went to Fresno and they worked vineyards to feed the sheep. They had many bad years. The most arid land was for the livestock and if it didn’t rain there was no food. These last few years they have brought water in trucks to where the sheep were. The shepherd has a lot of enemies in America. Before, they could control the coyotes because they were allowed put down poison and traps. But now they are not allowed and the number is increasing. A friend of his who went to Idaho had to get rid of his sheep as he could do nothing against the coyotes. They attack the lambs above all. There are many associations in favor of the coyotes because they say that the sheep will never disappear but the coyote could. An Anecdote.The coyotes are everywhere and they also go into the towns. They have been seen on the streets of Los Angeles. There are many people who would deserve to be forced to eat coyote meat instead of lamb.
SC-011b A01 jobs: He went as a shepherd in 1957. In the beginning it was tough; he especially missed the Sunday afternoon fiestas they used to have. He started with a flock of three thousand five hundred sheep. He was at it for three and a half years with two different bosses. His contract began in 1956. He had to spend three years there.The Basque speakers used to meet up quite often. There were eighteen or twenty thousand sheep in those lands and all the shepherds were Basque speakers.The second boss paid him more. He took tax out of the salary.
SC-011b A02 jobs: When he left the sheep business he began to work as a pig slaughterer in a butcher’s company. They used to kill three hundred pigs in an hour. How they used to do the work. He was working there for six years. In 1972 he began to work as a gardener for his brother-in-law.
SC-011c A01 anecdote - jobs: He had problems with the police. They went to the house in search of him and he had to spend the night in the police station. At eight o’clock in the morning they awoke him and wanted to take him straight to the airport but he managed to get to stay there.He got married so as to have his right of residency. As soon as he was married to a woman from there he got his residency papers.
IR-019 A01 jobs:
IR-019 A03
II-176b A07 There was a lot of money to be earned in America. At first, you felt sad because you were a lot way from your native land, but you got over it. They worked hard and were paid very well.