Themes

jobs: [31 results]

Recording Piece Others themes Sumary
IR-010 A03 Iparralde
II-033b A05 market The changes in the market.(26:45") The fair for the sheep.
II-033b A06 The earnings from the pass are what saves the shepherd. The money in the hand that they make from the cheese made in the pass is what saves the shepherd.Nowadays too, it is possible to make a living from the sheep. Nowadays there are grants, not like in the old days.
II-033b A08 anecdote - jobs: That zone of the mountain has changed a lot. Now there are pathways and it is easy to get there. Anecdote. How they made the journeys up and down. They would sleep beside the mule. There is no doubt that tomorrow there will be shepherds in Iropil, although they may be different.(46:50") Goodbye.
II-033b A02 anecdote - weather: When it would snow they put the sheep inside, but even so, those sheep needed to got out, even for only a short time, and even if there was snow.Anecdote: the hardest winter of all.
II-033b A01 Introduction: He was a shepherd in Irati.(02:35") They used to come down from the pass in December.In the pass it would often snow. Sometimes they would have to come back down three times due to the snow.In December they were in the lower pastures and they would spend the Xmas there. The sheep used to give birth later.
II-013a A01 animal husbandry: Introduction. Shepherding.Daniel tells how when the sheep were brought down they prepared the food and how they made the cheese. The rams: the sales. (10:35") Irisarri was the biggest market fair for the rams.When the lambs used to be separated from their mothers.(19:30”) The rams to be sold in the autumn were kept apart.
II-051a A01 jobs: Introduction.He has been a shepherd for fifty-six years at the cabin. At the beginning there were more of them and each one had his particular post. "Artzain nagusia" (the principal shepherd), who made the cheese, "artzain mutila" (the shepherd), "neskatua" (the master of the house), who was a cook, "antsozaina"(?).They would be up in the mountains for seventeen days at a time and they rotated the jobs depending on that."Lukenak".(07:45") They brought the cheese down on the mules. They would make cheese until Magdalene.
II-051a A02 animal husbandry: - carnival: The shepherds went out together twice a year; at "Igande Zuria" and at Magdalene.In autumn the sheep were brought down and the pigs were taken out. They had a pig-sty for the pigs.
II-051a A03 cowbell The changed the roads and this brought about a big change: the arrival of cars. The huts were left empty. Now no more cheese is made. He does not see any future for the huts.(23:38") The bells are very important when it comes to bringing up or bringing down the sheep from the pass. Now they don’t bring them down walking as they used to. Now the automobiles are used for everything.
II-051a A05 He is one of the oldest shepherds in Larrain. In autumn they used to go to their houses. In the Garazi sheep area there was something curious. In the huts there would be two or three shepherds from the beginning. Each one had his task, the chores for each one. The tasks would be rotated.Wood was collected every day. How they kept things clean.(46:00") Goodbye.
II-051b A01 animal husbandry: Introduction. A shepherd who has been many years in the Irati. He talks about the shearing.They used to begin shearing on the fourteenth of May. They would enjoy it because they would get together with other shepherds and they would sing and laugh a lot. As well as wine they would have lamb. At that time there were no roads. As soon as they left the hut they would sing and shout. There were a lot of shepherds and the master would come up by mule. He would take flour to make pancakes. During the period of the shearing some people would not bother to milk the sheep. Anecdote.
II-051b A02 (12:38") The shearing reminds him that the trip up is near. On Good Friday there was less work.
II-051b A03 animal husbandry: They brought the sheep up in May and later, they came back down about the fifteenth of July to shear them. At that time there was no road to allow up the machine and the shepherds would come together at the huts and there was no kitchen for cooking.There was two hours walk from the hut down to the house. The following morning they would start the shearing at dawn. To bring the sheep down again they would put on bells. At the shearing there was always a bit of a party and there still is. In the evening they would sing and play cards and sometimes, they would spend the whole night at cards and start shearing the next morning without having gone home. So as not to leave his friends he has sometimes left the sheep unmilked. (21:08") Pedro, a shepherd from Ibañeta: how they have problems to bring down the wool, because of the customs officers they would shear the sheep above. They would make more profit by shearing below but, at least for some people, there are customs controls when you carry the wool.
II-051b A04 animal husbandry: (23:45") They began in the morning and they stopped at midday and they continued to come down in the evening. They needed about seven hours to bring the sheep down. The following day they sheared them. In the evening they would take them half way and from there they went on alone. There was no tradition of shearing up in the hills because there were no cars. The huts were far away off the road and it was costly to take the wool out to the road.They began to shear the sheep at six in the morning and they would do it quickly. Each shearer would do about twenty sheep. One shepherd sheared ninty-six sheep in a day on his own.They still do the shearing by hand. The new machines are very expensive.
II-051b A05 winter (38:10") The hardest winter he has known. The problems of trying to take the milk by mule and cart.
II-051b A06 animal husbandry: The pasture lands have changed in price and in quality. The best thing was to make the deal gradually; to take a couple of days. He would go down by bicycle for two days to make the deal about the pasture land. Stories.(45:15") Goodbye.
II-108a A07 Christmas Although most of the shepherds were already down by that time of year, some would have had to spend Xmas in the mountains.The Xmases that he did not spend in the mountain hut she would spend with her children while her husband was at the pastures. Two or three times she was also with her husband at the pastures.They have had problems with the snow in December sometimes.
N-020 A02 America Other young men were going off to America, just like him. They would go on a three-year contract. They were put in charge of two thousand sheep. They would move from place to place wherever there was pasture land. The owner would bring food up to them but they had to look after themselves and do the cooking and even make the bread which was the hardest part. The owner would give them flour and yeast but they had to make the bread themselves. There were times when they had a lot of time on their hands, but other times, especially when the sheep were lambing, when they no time for anything. They had to wake up earlier than the sheep so that they would not be scattered about. The black sheep were the ones who controlled the others. It was impossible to count all of them but to see the black ones was easier. When one of them was missing they would tell the owner that a sheep was missing. Then the owner would go down and rent a light plane and find the sheep easily. When the sheep from one flock got mixed in with those of another flock the owner would not say anything to the other owner. But as the sheep had a brand on their back it was easy to distinguish them from the light plane.Sometimes he would get together with other shepherds. There were a lot of Greeks at the shepherding. They were forced to learn English. But as most of the owners could speak some Spanish, the Basques did not have the same urgency about learning English.When the contract was up they asked for the residency papers so that they could stay on. But one morning the foreman came along and told them that they had to be in Madrid within two days. They returned to the town and got themselves ready and the next morning they headed back to Madrid by plane. At that time working in the mountains was paid at about fifteen thousand pesetas per month. As there was no place that they could spend the money, they would save it. They would send the money home twice a year.
II-003b A01 washing clothes - water - nutrition: Introduction: women have also worked on the pasture lands of the mountains in Euskal Herria.(02:45”) She has been a shepherdess since 1933. Her husband was from Amezketa but he was working as a shepherd here. He was in America for four years and when he returned he bought sheep. She had three children. Even so, she spent forty-eight years in Irupil with the sheep. They used to bring up the provisions by donkey.The change from donkeys to oxen. She milked the sheep. Between the two of them they used to milk seventy sheep and they made five cheeses, four in the mornings and one at night. There was no running water in the cabin. They had a car and they would take water in containers. When it rained they would collect water with a long pole. If not, to do the washing they would tie a container of water on each side of the donkey and go by car. Then the donkey would go back itself to the barn and they would stay with the sheep.They had to bring down the cheese and all the rest on the donkey.She learnt to make cheese with her husband.The differences between the cheese in the old days and the cheese now. (17:30”).(19:25”). It did not take too much effort to rear the children. They were quite happy to play among themselves. When they were old enough to go to school they stayed with their grandfather in Donibane during the weekdays. She would go in winter to Eiheralarre because the pasture land was there.(24:05”) Anecdote: her husband became ill and she had to do all the work. They never kept any workers to help them. She was alone with the sheep on more than one occasion. She made many trips up and down, but only twice did she try to mount the donkey and both times she fell off.Not many people passed by up the Irupil Pass.The fiestas of Orbaitzeta were very important for the shepherds of Irupil. She has many fond memories. Everyone knew each other. In her opinion, despite being a woman, she did the job very well.One of her sons has become a shepherd, first here and later in America. She doesn’t think that any young woman nowadays would be able to live as a shepherdess as she did.(46:05”) Goodbye.
II-004a A01 Introduction. Agustinela went from Ezterenzubi to Irati at the age of eighteen, as the wife of a shepherd. She got married and that same year she began with the shepherding. In winter they came down to Eiheralarre.They went to Irati on foot. They used to get up at dawn and she would milk the sheep and make cheese. It was a long journey and they did it all on foot.
II-004a A02 water - nutrition: Mainaina was at the shepherding for thirty-two years in Irupil. The same year that she got married she went to the pasture lands. The cabin was at a distance of three and half hours. They would go some eight days before to clean it and to bring up the provisions. Then they would take the sheep up on the twenty-ninth of April.In the mornings while her husband collected the sheep she would light the fire and heat the water so that all would be ready to make the cheeses as soon as the sheep were milked. Making the cheese was her work, she would make two in the morning and two at night. Meanwhile she would do the other chores, cleaning the cabin and so on. When it was time to take down the cheese, they would set off at about three in the morning with the mule and the donkey, before the cheese might get heated up. They needed eight days to bring down all the cheese. They used to milk about a hundred sheep and make cheese of that milk. She learnt how to do it from her husband. How they made the cheese.The chores in the cabin.They did up the place.Later they took over the hotel during two years but continued with the shepherding and the cheeses. When they had children, they too were up there in the summer. During the school year, however, they stayed down below.They never had any problems with the cheese. The journeys they had made up and down.By ten o’ clock in the morning they used to have all the chores finished .In the cabin there was no running water. They used to take two donkeys and it was about an hour away to reach the water spot. One donkey would carry sheets and things and the other the water. They had to go for water everyday.
II-004a A03 war - nutrition: They made roads in Garruze and the children went to school in Donapaleu.The flock grew according to their needs. They boys would do the same as she did. Where the boys all are now.She was the only woman in Irati. The people who passed through there. It was the time of the war. An anecdote about the “Maquis”: they saw how they took one of the sheep to the hotel, but it was not the only time. The woodcutters would spend the afternoons with them. They used to sell the cheese.The children would come up to them during the holiday period. In the autumn all of them would go back down. When, how and to whom, they sold the cheese. In war time it was an advantage to make cheese.
II-004a A04 In May her husband would go up and she would follow eight days later with the child. The child was there with them until he reached the age to go to school.Nowadays the life in the cabin is easier. Now there are roads, light, telephone, water…Just like home. Even so, nobody wants to go there now.In winter she also worked with her husband at shepherding.The negative side of the business: bad weather, rain, the cold. However, she has no regrets about the life there. They were thirty-two years in the mountain, up to twelve years ago when they retired.The shepherds would get together from time to time. The shepherd’s food and the lambs(one-year-old ones).As well as preparing the meals for the shepherds she would also cut their hair.Her husband would go up in May and come down in July to the grass lands.She thinks it is possible for a family to live nowadays in the mountain.
II-004a A05 They were two years without children. They had one hundred and twenty sheep when she got married and two years later they had two hundred and fifty. Then they had their first child. Later the flock got smaller and did not give so much money.Nowadays it is not as hard as before to live as a shepherd.(Mainaina). Nowadays there are subventions, unlike the old days.(45:10”) It is still possible to make a living from shepherding, even for women.Goodbye.
II-004b A01 nutrition: A woman who worked as a shepherdess. She was thirty-two years in the Irati mountains.(02:10”) First they were two or three years in Olape and in autumn, they would go to a hut which they later bought in Irati.Before going up, in May, they were on the meadows and they would prepare the goods which they would later bring up on the donkeys. They went up at the same time as the sheep. They reached the hut in two days.First the woman would organize the chores in the hut and then she would go and milk the sheep, clean the shelves…One time they went up in May and it began to snow three days later.To shear the sheep all the shepherds came together. That was not woman’s work so she would make the meals.The children would come up on vacation. During the school year they would stay down below with the grandparents. They would bring down the cheese on the donkeys. They would join with others and sell the cheese together. (13:35”) At that time few people would be seen in the mountains. Since the roadways have been made you can find many people in the woods of the Irati. She liked the life in the mountains. They used to eat a lot of corn. The bread came later. How they managed with the lights.Winter was spent with fodder for the animals. The woman had more work in winter than in the mountain hut.(20:30”) There were also some bad autumns and they had to come down earlier than planned .One time they had to leave eighteen sheep behind in order to save the rest of the flock and later they found them all alive. (23:40”) Nowadays the shepherds spend the day up there but few would think of living up there. Nowadays the huts are better prepared, it would be easier to live there now.The wool is no longer sold. In the old days a lot of money could be made selling wool.(30:00”) They began to milk and make the cheese quite late, in February. In May and June the cheese was better, because up there the sheep gave more milk. Her children did not follow in the same work but that was not any disappointment.Nowadays everything is different. (38:00”) Goodbye and thanks.(39:00”) Song.(44:45”) Goodbye to the program.
II-005b A01 nutrition: Introduction: The shepherdesses. This young woman lives with her husband in the mountain.Unlike the previous cases of shepherdesses, she has a pathway to the cabin, and now it is possible to live in more comfort. More people visit the mountains and with a car there is no problem. She does some big shopping whenever she comes down.At first the children stayed with the grandparents, but later they began to shorten the week, sending them up on Tuesday afternoons. She had become a bit distant from them and now she feels closer to them. There are some things which other children have that they don’t, but it is a choice, like having TV, and she explained it to them and they accept it. They four of them talk and play together.It is not easy to make them fond of this kind of work, but now each of them has their own horse and they help a lot with the jobs. The boy likes the work and knows it, but they will not oblige him to continue it.She does not see any inconvience for women who want to live in the mountain nowadays. It is necessary to like it and everything is not available at hand, but they do have water and light. They have a washing machine to do the washing. But she likes to do it in the river with her feet in the water. A flock of sheep can provide a living. They make cheese from all the milk. They have set up a small cheese business. Making cheese from all the milk is enough to live on all summer. The preferences of the children.They have two hundred and twenty sheep. The winter work is the same as always. It hasn’t changed. But now there are more modern appliances.However, they have four hundred sheep to look after in summer but on the other hand they have more milk and with that they make the cheese and make a bigger profit.The cheese is sold at the cabin. They are in the same location and they have a camping close by. They also have their regular customers. Above all, they want to be there. She has no regrets about the choice she made.She had been in a factory for three years and she had no doubts about making the change. What costs the most effort is having to change house twice a year. There are four of them and they have a lot of things. But with the car it is not difficult. Outlines, not being tied to a machine, the mode of dressing, the simple life: that is what makes it attractive.The doors of the cabin are always open. In the mountain there is more time to talk to people. They only need the important things in life.(47:25”) Goodbye.
II-031a A04 Christmas - treatments (36:35") Alfonso the shepherd has always spent Xmas with his family. Once he had to spend a winter on the land, but that was the only time.The fairs and the dealing are not like they were in the old days.(45:55”) Farewells.
II-031a A02 Christmas (18:52") Mari Gaetano was a shepherdess in Irupil. How Xmas was spent in the cabin. When the children were small both of them spent Xmas at home. Later her husband would be out in the fields and she would stay with the children. She has only been two or three times with her husband in the fields at Xmas.Bad weather caused problems at times when they were in the cabin. In May, after having gone up with the sheep, they had to come back down again.
II-031a A03 Christmas (25:40") Nicolás the Shepherd: his feelings and attitude to Xmas. If one was not at home, there was always a place in another house. When a shepherd was all alone there was a custom of inviting him to another house, but more at Easter than at Xmas. Nowadays the sheep business is different. The arrival of the car has made a big change.
II-031a A01 Christmas (02.35") Pettain the shepherd would go down to the cabin at the beginning of December. At Xmas they would go to midnight mass on Xmas Eve. It was a two hour walk. They were in the cabin all of December and half of January. What they did there.They would feed the sheep in the morning always and again at night. If it snowed they would also feed them several times during the day.The fields and the hay would be worked in the summer. (11:35") They also had the cows in the same barn.They only went down to the village at Xmas. The food was taken up by family members by donkey. They would go up to the pass before May if the weather was good.