- religion: Saint John
||He is an anthropologist and those people are studying the Carnival. It is a difficult job, as each village has its own characters. In the villages of Euskal Herria the customs have been lost to a great extent. But it must be said that Carnivalis something that has been common to most European cities. More than a prelude to Lent, he understands Carnivalas a tradition tied to the land. “Inauteri” (Carnival) and “Aratuste” (?) is a pair. The characteristic of that phase is the pruning. Moreover, the par “mozorro” (fancy-dress) and “zomorro” (insect), as well as fancy-dress, also means “the process of insectization”. The young people go from house to house collecting the cherry, and the cherry in this case was the tithe. With this they made the magic spell: as they had got their cherry in February, the insects would not come in the summer. Society manifested its apprehensions. Although now it is seen as a big party, wine and alcohol also had its magic side to it. The insects have always died in alcohol and so they drank wine with the aim of alienating the pestilences. The mosquitos and the grasshoppers have been the archetypal insects in Europe. On the one hand the plague from the grasshoppers were very bad, and on the other, the mosquitos were the cause of malaria. Even today, in Germany there is a “pestilence tribunal”. The giants are a symbol of hunger, as their stomachs are insatiable. There are also certain dances which have a sense of a pruning process, such as “jorrai dantza”. Consequently, at one time these were customs related to work. And it has to be said, that they became mixed in with religious beliefs.The characters from Ituren and Zubieta carry in their hands both bells and horse tails.These instruments are what the animals use against the insects.In Christianity, Beelzebub has the ethymological meaning of “lord of the flies”.That is to say, that the Devil is related to the flies.(13:16”) The bear: It always comes out in February, a symbol of the end of winter and the arrival of spring. And with his arrival comes that of the gypsies. That is also a very old element.Although the Concilios were against Carnival, the people kept up the customs. Although things changed, they had some ideas very clear: masks, “errain behar” (to have to hide?), “zaldikoak” (in all Europe) and arabs, jews and gypsies. These would be the most important fancy dress costumes for the carnivals. Symmetrically you have the fiesta of San Juan with those of February. The people dress up (become insects) in Carnivaland on the eve of San Juan, and the insects are burnt on the bonfires. These two fiestas complement each other. The carnivals change their calendar dates just like the new moon.He is going to publish a book.(19:10”) Goodbye.